Officials around the United States have spent the last three years scrambling to harden election and voting infrastructure against the disinformation campaigns, phishing attacks, and system probing that plagued 2016.
With exactly one year to go until the 2020 presidential election, local and state boards of election have made significant progress on improving digital defenses.
But researchers and election integrity advocates continue to sound the alarm that some of the most important changes—like replacing insecure voting machines and hiring necessary personnel—can't happen without more funding from Congress.
They are particularly suited in some ways to aid campaigns, which are lightweight, temporary organizations by nature.
"I’ve heard election officials in particular say that they are bombarded with offers from private vendors to help with cybersecurity, and often feel like they have no basis for determining who to trust," says Lawrence Norden, deputy director of the Brennan Center's Democracy Program at New York University School of Law.
Private vendors aren't the only option for election officials and candidates.