Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz was born in the middle of the 17th century but made substantial contributions to computer science still the underpinnings for modern computers.Born on this day in 1646, the German mathematician completed his bachelor's degree in philosophy in one year at age of 15 and went on to become one of the most prominent figures in the history of philosophy.He was an early advocate of the theory of rationalism and anticipated modern logic and analytic philosophy.But it was for his work in mathematics that his 372nd birthday is celebrated in a Google Doodle on Sunday.While Leibniz's greatest accomplishment is his contributions to the study of calculus, he also refined the binary numerical system, in which a series of ones and zeros express of numbers.The system forms the foundation for almost all modern computers and mobile devices.
What you’d feel comfortable murmuring to a friend in a private meeting is likely not what you’d say loudly to a coworker while your boss is in earshot.Online, we not only communicate, we calculate—based on who we’re speaking to, or what platform we’re using, we gauge whether the information we divulge will remain solely with the people we’ve chosen to share it with.As leaks, breaches, and data collection scandals grab headlines, it’s clear that we’re often wrong.And as it turns out, it’s our very trust in technology that promises privacy and anonymity that often makes that violation worse.“The space for existing without being searchable and findable at all times is shrinking,” Woodrow Hartzog, author of Privacy’s Blueprint: The Battle to Control the Design of New Technologies, tells Gizmodo.Speaking offline is ephemeral, and often held only in our memories.
As long as the angle is between 0 and 90 degrees, the stuff in the denominator will be bigger than just μs such that the force will be smaller at an angle.Of course you could take the equation for the force as a function of θ above and take the derivative with respect to θ and then set it equal to zero.I can calculate the force required and a bunch of different angles and then just find the angle with the smallest force.Since I don't actually want to do this by hand—I will use Python.And here is that program (so that you can play with it too).Just push the Run button to run it and then you can go back and edit the code if you want to play with it.
Ostensibly, Cultist Simulator is about gathering disciples to your cause as you strive for your purpose, be that enlightenment or the worship of chaos.After all, it comes from the labyrinthian imagination of Failbetter Games founder Alexis Kennedy, who developed games like Fallen London and Sunless Seas.It’s the debut title from indie studio Weather Factory, which Kennedy founded alongside Failbetter producer Lottie Bevan, and it’s out today on PC.You’ll send them out on quests to ransack old castles and trek through the mire to find treasure.But once you die — and you will die, because death is part of the cycle — you’ll have the option to play as different characters, one of whom is a Detective for the same organization.When you become the Bright Young Thing, you’ll hear rumors about your last character.
When Amazon introduced AWS Lambda in 2015, the notion of serverless computing was relatively unknown.Instead, Amazon manages it all and the underlying infrastructure only comes into play when an event triggers a requirement.Today, the company released an app in the iOS App Store called AWS IoT 1-Click to bring that notion a step further.One particularly good example from Amazon is the Dash Button.These are simple buttons that users push to reorder goods like laundry detergent or toilet paper.Pushing the button connects to the device to the internet via the home or business’s WiFi and sends a signal to the vendor to order the product in the pre-configured amount.
Dropbox made its debut as a public company earlier this year and today passed through its first milestone of reporting its results to public investors, and it more or less beat expectations set for Wall Street on the top and bottom line.The company reported more revenue and beat expectations for earnings that Wall Street set, bringing in \$316.3 million in revenue and appearing to pick up momentum among its paying user base.Still, as the company continues to ramp up the enterprise component of its business, the calculus of its business may change over time.This is a pretty important moment for the company, as it was a darling in Silicon Valley and rocketed to a \$10 billion valuation in the early phases of the Web 2.0 era but began to face a ton of criticism as to whether it could be a robust business as larger companies started to offer cloud storage as a perk and not a business.Dropbox then found itself going up against companies like Box and Microsoft as it worked to create an enterprise business, but all this was behind closed doors — and it wasn’t clear if it was able to successfully maneuver its way into a second big business.Now the company is beholden to public shareholders and has to show all this in the open, and it serves as a good barometer of not just storage and collaboration businesses, but also some companies that are looking to drastically simplify workflow processes and convert that into a real business (like Slack, for example).
Given Hollywood's instant-gratification calculus, it's likely that no other studio—and perhaps not even Marvel itself—will want to gamble that audiences will want to consume movies the way they do comic books: slowly, over years, following dozens of characters until they converge in one massive crossover event.Star Wars has been going on for more than four decades, but that longevity wasn't pre-ordained.People kept lining up to see Skywalker movies, so Lucasfilm kept making them, first as prequels and now as ongoing sagas and one-offs.There’s an entire galaxy far, far away now, but it didn’t come from a pre-existing canon; it wasn’t born in decades of pulp like the Avengers were.Cinemas have been welcoming James Bond films for more than 50 years, but despite the presence of some ongoing baddies like SPECTRE, 007 himself gets rebooted and replaced every few years.Warner Bros./DC is trying to replicate the Marvel model with the Justice League, but is so far behind the avenging pack—and offers such disparity between its films—it may never fully catch up, no matter how devout Zack Snyder stans are.
Some recent comments from the chief executive of Boeing, an aerospace company that simultaneously holds the most lucrative contracts in NASA’s exploration, International Space Station, and commercial crew programs, seem to fall into the latter category.Speaking at a recent forum about NASA’s plans to send humans to Mars, Boeing’s Dennis Muilenburg offered his own opinion.Muilenburg’s rah-rah rhetoric, moreover, is severely undercut by comments from NASA’s chief of human spaceflight.Asked about Gerstenmaier’s talk about living within flat budgets, a co-chairman of the Pathways report, Cornell University planetary scientist Jonathan Lunine, referred Ars to the central conclusion of the study: “A program of human space exploration beyond low Earth orbit that satisfies the pathway principles defined is not sustainable with a budget that increases only enough to keep pace with inflation.”Assuming an exploration budget that included adjustments for an inflation rate of 2.5 percent, the Pathways report found that NASA could probably land humans on Mars in the 2050s, said Ariel Waldman, a science communicator and co-author of the report.NASA’s recent budget and activities have not changed this calculus.
It’s excusable if you didn’t notice it when a scientist named Daniel J. Buehrer, a retired professor from the National Chung Cheng University in Taiwan, published a white paper earlier this month proposing a new class of math that could lead to the birth of machine consciousness.In order to have a discussion around the idea of a computer that can ‘feel’ and ‘think,’ and has it’s own motivations, you first have to find two people who actually agree on the semantics of sentience.We’re just not ready to accept the idea of a mechanical species of ‘beings’ that exist completely independently of humans, and for good reason: it’s the stuff of science fiction – just like spaceships and lasers once were.Which brings us back to Buehrer’s white paper proposing a new class of calculus.If his theories are correct, his math could lead to the creation of an all-encompassing, all-learning algorithm.The paper, titled “A Mathematical Framework for Superintelligent Machines,” proposes a new type of math, a class calculus that is “expressive enough to describe and improve its own learning process.”
"We think of it as the cells doing calculus; the cells sense and respond to the underlying curvature," says Kathleen Stebe of Penn's School of Engineering and Applied Science.Now, the researchers, led by Stebe and recent engineering graduate Nathan Bade in collaboration with Randall Kamien of the School of Arts and Sciences and Richard Assoian of the Perelman School of Medicine, have published a follow up study that Stebe likens to "calc III" for cells, investigating how cells respond to more complex geometries.The research, which could enable new tools in biology and affect how physicians treat things like vascular disease, has been published in the Biophysical Journal.As the name suggests, the upper portion of the surface is spherical, but, as one travels farther down the surface on either side, it forms a skirt that is saddle-like in shape.Because of this, the surface has two non-zero principle curvatures at every point; the spherical portion has what's called positive Gaussian curvature while the skirt has negative Gaussian curvature.And it turns out these cells are really clever.
Western airstrikes on the Middle East: déjà vu all over again.Twenty years ago, the USA attacked Sudan and Afghanistan with Tomahawk cruise missiles.Two days ago, the USA attacked Syria with … Tomahawk cruise missiles.In the next decade, that strategic calculus will change a lot, and probably not in a good way.Consider this sharp one-liner from Kelsey Atherton last week:the future of war is million-dollar gray triangles hunting hundred-dollar quadcopters
Isn't this a poor approximation to the actual area of a circle (half-circle)?Yes, that is indeed true—but it really depends on the width of these tiny area rectangles.In fact, if I take the limit as the width (dx) goes to zero then I will get the exact area.This is actually the definition of the integral in calculus—but I will save that for another day.Instead we will do a numerical calculation by simply adding up the area of a bunch of rectangles.You could of course do this by hand—but it might get boring.
In testimony before the US Senate Armed Services Committee on Tuesday, National Security Agency Director and US Cyber Command Commander Admiral Michael Rogers told senators that measures taken thus far by the US government in response to the information operations, malware attacks, and network intrusions attributed to “Russian actors” had not done anything to deter further such attacks.Russia’s alleged intrusions included attempts to gain access to voter data.Thus far there’s no evidence any data was modified, though some voter data was clearly accessed.In response to a question from Senator Richard Blumenthal of Connecticut, Rogers agreed that what has been done so far “hasn’t changed the calculus, in my sense—it certainly hasn’t generated the change in behavior that I think we all know we need.”Russian President Vladimir Putin, in other words, has little reason to put an end to the type of information operations and malware campaigns his intelligence agencies have sponsored, apparently at his direction.And so far those haven’t stopped, based on allegations that Russian intelligence was behind the attack on the networks of the PyeongChang Winter Olympics earlier this month.
Python is a high-level, object-oriented, interpretive language with dynamic semantics. It’s a high level built-in data structure that is combined with dynamic typing and binding. It has been ranked in top of the eight most popular programming languages.Python can serve as a scripting language for the web applications. Besides, it covers many aspects of math, comprising numerical mathematics, algebra, and calculus and number theory.With so many applications, searching a good Python developer is a daunting task, though it is one of the most popular programming languages.Read more!
Is there anything Senators won't try to turn into votes?Unfortunately, as a press conference held on Tuesday morning in Washington DC made plain, political support for the measure is almost entirely thanks to the fact that Democrats feel they can use it to win votes in the midterm elections in November this year.No fewer than nine senators – all of them Democrats – took the microphone to explain their support of a resolution under the Congressional Review Act (CRA) that would invalidate the controversial decision by US broadband watchdog the FCC to scrap internet traffic protections in December.And while some senators clearly believe that the FCC's decision was flawed and potentially damaging, the political calculus was never far from their minds."There will be a political price to pay for those on the wrong side of history," said the main proponent of the measure, Senator Ed Markey (D-MA).Markey calculated that the vote will take place in early spring or early summer and said that the Democratic Party would use the intervening months to "build grassroots support," virtually salivating over the prospect of "millennials who see the loss of net neutrality as a loss of control."
Walt Disney Co. has agreed to buy the bulk of 21st Century Fox’s holdings in a \$52.4 billion deal.Disney is now the proud majority owner of Hulu, and the soon to be overlord of premium streaming.Disney is currently leaving the toxic but profitable Fox News assets to the Murdoch cabal, and snapping up pretty much everything else under the Fox roof.That includes the National Geographic networks, the X-Men film franchise, and The Simpsons.While this deal gives Amazon less negotiating power in the future, Netflix is the one that’ll be hit hardest.But now, two out of the four major services people will choose from in the near future will be owned by the Mouse.
If analog and hybrid computers were so valuable half a century ago, why did they disappear, leaving almost no trace?Here, I will focus on a different application of analog and hybrid computers: efficient scientific computation.“Most early analog computers were mechanical contraptions containing rotating wheels and gears”To take a ludicrously simple example, you could consider a hose and a bucket as an analog computer, one that performs the integration function of calculus.These include Vannevar Bush’s differential analyzer in 1931, constructed on principles that go back to the 19th century, chiefly to the work of William Thomson (who later became Lord Kelvin) and his brother James, who designed mechanical analog computers for calculating tides.And none other than Claude Shannon, the father of formal digital design theory, published a seminal theoretical treatment of analog computing in 1941.
As a girl with a mathematical edge, studying Calculus in high school, I want to introduce you to the Golden Ratio because studies of top models have shown that they have countless numbers of this ratio in their faces.Well to be exact it is 1.6180339.... and you can find it by specific measurements in your face.Here is my own face rank based on the Golden Ratio:Beauty may be in the eye of the beholder but according to a study from the University of Nebraska, a smaller nose and chin, along with a larger distance between the eyes and a smaller mouth width are deemed desirable traits for women.Females were proven to be seen as the fairer sex, rated more attractive by both men and women.When the 2 front teeth form a rectangle with a Golden Ratio measurement (height to width of the center 2 teeth of 1.62) it is perceived as a perfect smile.
Over the past few months, as the size of the Islamic State’s caliphate rapidly shrunk, the Pentagon began citing the number of enemy dead as an equally important barometer of longer term success.“We’re not seeing a lot of flow out of the core caliphate, because most of those people are dead now,” Lieutenant General Kenneth McKenzie, Jr., the director of the Pentagon’s Joint Staff, confidently told reporters this month.“They’re unable to manifest the former activities they did to try to pose themselves as a state.”Yet the calculus is pivotal now that the ISIS pseudo-caliphate has collapsed: Just how many fighters have survived?Between 2014 and 2016, the perpetrators of all but four of the forty-two terrorist attacks in the West had some connection to ISIS, the European Commission’s Radicalization Awareness Network said, in July.A new report, to be released Tuesday by the Soufan Group and the Global Strategy Network, details some of the answers: At least fifty-six hundred people from thirty-three countries have already gone home—and most countries don’t yet have a head count.
Anyone in politics or government who works for Donald Trump, whether on the payroll or in some other supporting role, is forced to make a sacrifice.Sean Spicer learned this on his first day on the job, when Trump sent him into the White House briefing room to tell the press lies about Inauguration-crowd sizes.Many privately say that they believe Trump is a disaster of a President, an embarrassment to the G.O.P., and, as Bob Corker recently said publicly, echoing what he claimed were the views of most Republican senators, setting America “on the path to World War III.” They justify their support by noting that Trump will implement the core Republican agenda, and that alone is worth the price of a person at least some of them believe is unfit to be President.They may be privately embarrassed by Trump, the agreement goes, but at least he has appointed a reliable conservative to the Supreme Court, almost repealed Obamacare (and still might), and has a decent chance at signing a big tax cut into law.How morally justifiable one believes this argument is depends a lot on how bad one believes Trump is for the country and the world, though a Third World War seems like it would be a steep price to pay for Neil Gorsuch.The government needs to be staffed, and, especially in positions of national security, it’s hard to argue against anyone taking a senior position at the Pentagon, the State Department, or the National Security Council to insure that Trump’s worst instincts are contained.
This year marks the 375th anniversary of the birth of Isaac Newton, the famed physicist who gave us calculus, the laws of motion, and an irrational fear of apples falling on our head for no good reason.To commemorate the occasion the Royal Mint has produced a special edition 50p coin, and some of them have started going into circulation.The downside is that you're not likely to get one of these as change with your morning coffee.At the moment only 375 of the coins have gone into active circulation, all in shops at Newton's birthplace and family home of Woolsthorpe Manor in Lincolnshire.The Royal Mint says that more coins will be released into circulation "imminently", but hasn't specified when and where it will happen.If you just can't wait, the Mint's shop is selling commemorative editions of the coin, with gold and silver proof variants available for ludicrous prices.
The big letdown from Apple’s product announcement last Tuesday was news that its most desirable new gadget, the iPhone X, can’t be pre-ordered until late October and won’t start shipping until November.Dealers in Hong Kong expect to sell the phones at a \$300 to \$400 premium in the first weeks they’re available.This past year alone, Google’s Pixel phone, Nintendo ’s Switch and classic gaming-system reboot, and even Apple’s iPhone 7 Plus have been thin on the ground.You’d think after years of hard-won experience, tech hardware companies could deliver goods when and where there’s demand—especially at Apple, whose chief executive, Tim Cook, made his name as an operations maestro.Or is it the case that manufacturing millions of complex electronic gadgets, and distributing them globally, is really hard?The calculus gets trickier when the device’s price hits a new high and the company has no precedent to gauge demand, says Mr. Ashok, now chief executive of mobile software startup UnfoldLabs.
There’s nothing more American than a country song about long-haul trucking.At least, that’s the rough calculus behind a new ad from Mack Trucks, featuring an original tune by Nashville-based artist Steve Moakler.In “Born Ready,” a four-minute commercial made in the style of a music video, Moakler croons about rolling down the blacktop with two hands holding the wheel steady, while the Stars and Stripes wave around overhead.True to the song’s title, which is also the brand’s tagline, it’s a paean to hard work, and a celebration of the automaker’s new Anthem model.In the clip, a young girl counts the days until her father, who’s out on a run, comes home.This is a modern truck, though, and the dad is no absentee slouch.
Tariq Rashid on programming AIInterview If you're going to learn about neural networks, you could do worse than learn it from someone who got five A levels (all grade As), has his MSc in Advanced Computing, and can tell you how to build your own neural network in 30 lines of code, even if you don't know any calculus.There aren't many people fitting that description, but we know one.But how did a chap who spent the last seven years promoting open-source software in the UK government, a place where IT comes in big boxes and mega contracts and then invariably runs late and over budget, come to write a "how-to" book on something as happening and now as AI?He spent his time there helping to steer its IT policy in the direction of open source through two elections, and occasionally surfaced to talk about how the government was missing a trick by not exploring the concept more closely.He moved to London and worked at a startup, then spent a spell at Easynet before a year as an IT architect and manager at Barclays Investment Bank.
For all the moral turpitude, fake history, and agitated narcissism it placed on public display, the press conference that Donald Trump gave in the lobby of his gilded Fifth Avenue tower on Tuesday may ultimately serve a useful historical purpose.If nothing else, it clarified the ethical challenge that Trump’s Presidency presents to Americans of good will from all backgrounds and political persuasions: Who will stand against a man who described as ”fine people” members of the crowd that marched through the streets of Charlottesville, Virginia, dressed in white, carrying torches, and chanting “Jews will not replace us”?But, in terms of reputational risk and personal moral calculus, the price of accommodating Trump increased after his press conference.By openly giving succor to the likes of David Duke, the former Klansman, and Richard Spencer, the white nationalist who helped organize the “Unite the Right” hate gathering in Charlottesville, Trump now occupies a place in the political firmament where it is becoming almost as risky for corporate chieftains to associate with him as it is for them to distance themselves.On Wednesday afternoon, Trump disbanded two White House councils that were formed for C.E.O.s to give him economic and manufacturing advice, but the move is unlikely to end corporate America’s contradictory relationship Trump.“American’s leaders must honor our fundamental values by clearly rejecting expressions of hatred, bigotry and group supremacy, which run counter to the American ideal that all people are created equal.
Flashback to the 1970s, when this college student pilot fish works nights as a computer operator -- and he gets to use the big machine for his homework, too."My calculus professor asked us to write a Fortran program to simulate a Monte Carlo method of determining the area under a graph," says fish."You have a formula that, for a given input, tells you whether your result lies above or below a less-than-typical plot line.You run the formula using a random set of inputs, then count what percentage of 'hits' are below the line."It doesn't take a genius to figure out that the more random numbers you use, the closer you get to fairly approximating the area."So I wrote the Fortran program to successively iterate using more and more random inputs, so I could demonstrate how the area calculation improves.
A good reality-TV show—and “The Bachelorette” qualifies—recognizes its ridiculous ability to expose and magnify the culture’s natural machinations.It follows, then, that in 2017 “The Bachelorette,” on its surface an escapist soap, might also brandish a sneaky pessimism: above all, it is a game show, and whoever works its weepy calculus most skillfully wins, plain and simple.In live segments before a studio audience, Lindsay, who had spent two months traversing the flatlands of America, the peaks of Geneva, and the vineyards of Rioja in search of a husband, would be watching along with the viewers, giving insight into the final week.Chris Harrison, our nonpartisan host, strolled onstage, looking funereal.Out of thirty-one men, three remained, and while they waited backstage three cameras were aimed at their faces.Rachel tearily enumerated her options: “When I’m with Bryan, I feel like I’m in a fairy tale.” Eric made “our souls feel intertwined.” (Soon after, Rachel eliminated Eric, with little fanfare.)
For the second quarter in a row, Netflix has handily beaten industry watchers — and its own expectations — in adding a mountain of additional new subscribers.Netflix today said it added 5.2 million additional new subscribers this quarter, a number well above the 3.2 million new subscriber additions that it set itself — and the stock promptly jumped nearly 9 percent.More than 4 million of those new subscribers are international viewers, and it still added more than 1 million domestic subscribers despite its big push into markets beyond North America.As usual, the subscriber numbers are the ones Wall Street cares about.Netflix can do what it can to alter the calculus of its operations in order to juice out a better earnings report, but subscriber growth — like user growth for Facebook and anything along those lines — are what will determine the future fiscal success of the company.Netflix dominates locally, but international audiences represent a much more tantalizing opportunity that it has to grow into.
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