A comprehensive analysis of DNA from modern Melanesian people suggests an assortment of mutated genes inherited from extinct Neanderthals and Denisovans provided evolutionary advantages, such as the ability to consume new foods and avoid infections, among other important benefits.Neanderthals and Denisovans went extinct some 35,000 to 40,000 years ago, but not before these closely related hominins interbred with modern humans.To this very day, the legacy of these interbreeding episodes live on in our DNA – at least among humans of European and Asian descent.New research published today in Science dives into these unknowns, uncovering new evidence suggesting some of these inherited genes – at least among modern Melanesians – conferred certain evolutionary benefits, the exact nature of which still needs to be determined.“Our study demonstrates that previously unknown large genomic structural changes that originated in our now-extinct close relatives – and were subsequently introgressed or introduced back to our genome – play important roles in human evolution,” explained PingHsun Hsieh, a geneticist from the Department of Genome Sciences at the University of Washington in Seattle and the lead researcher of the new paper, in an email to Gizmodo.“We also identify new genes encompassed within these large genomic variants that might be beneficial to Melanesians and help them adapt to their local island environments.”
At Qesem Cave in Israel, Neanderthals or early Homo sapiens appear to have stored marrow-rich deer bones for several weeks, relying on the bones and their outer layer of dried skin and flesh to keep the marrow relatively fresh—like storing leftovers in Pleistocene Tupperware.Based on the cut marks on the bones, people extracted the marrow after a few weeks, after the bones and their covering of skin and tendons had time to dry out.That suggests the people who lived at Qesem were planning ahead for their future needs—which is one more piece of evidence that Neanderthals and the earliest members of our own species were smarter than we’ve often given them credit for.People of various groups have lived at Qesem Cave off and on for hundreds of thousands of years.Archaeologists haven’t found hominin fossils at the site so far, but in the oldest layers of artifacts, they’ve unearthed oval and pear-shaped hand axes in the Acheulian style—a stone calling card of Homo erectus or their descendants, Homo heidelbergensis.In layers dating from 300,000 to 200,000 years old, the stone blades and scrapers belong to a set of stone tool cultures called the Acheulo-Yabrudian, which has turned up at Neanderthal and early Homo sapiens sites.
Tiny stone tools -- known as microliths -- were essential to the growth of our species thousands of years ago.According to a new paper published in PLUS One, microliths seen in the Fa Hien cave in the tropical rainforests of Sri Lanka date to 45,000 years ago.Their existence at this location suggests a range of "more diverse ecological contexts" for their use by Homo sapiens, researchers believe.The island of Sri Lanka has been seen as a vital area for examining how hunter-gatherers adapted in prehistoric times.Discovering these types of artifacts in this setting is significant, according to scientists, because the tools have been most typically linked to hunting medium to large animals in grassland areas."Interestingly, our evidence also shows that stone tool technology changed little over the long span of human occupation, from 48,000 to 4,000 years ago," said Andrea Picin, of the Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History and co-author of the study, in a statement.
“Basically, the story that we are telling is full of shit,” said Mike Morley, an archaeologist at Flinders University and the lead author of the new study, in an email to Gizmodo.Well, to be fair to Morley and his colleagues, their story is also full of charcoal fragments, ash, bits of bone, and flakes from stone tools – all of which were dredged from 3 to 4 metres (9 to 13 feet) of sediment at the bottom of two chambers in Denisova Cave.By performing a micromorphological analysis of all the stuff embedded within this dirt – both geological and biological – the researchers were able to reconstruct a history of habitation in the cave over the course of 300,000 years, a timespan that included no less than three interglacial cycles.Genetic evidence from 2018 suggests the two groups cohabited and co-mingled in the cave, as evidenced by the discovery of a half-Denisovan, half-Neanderthal individual.The new research corroborates the previous work done in Denisova Cave, but it also helps to fill in some unknown gaps, showing that archaic humans were not present in the cave for significant swaths of time.“We already knew from the fossil bone record that other animals were present in the cave, but it was a surprise just how much hyena – and to a lesser extent, wolf – poop there would be in the sediment record,” said Morley.
New research has revealed a Denisovan finger bone that’s unexpectedly human-like in shape – an odd observation, given the close relation of Denisovans to Neanderthals, whose fingers differed quite a bit from ours.To date, only five skeletal fossils are known from Denisovans: three molars, a mandible, and the tip of a pinky finger.That’s not much to go by, but the 50,000-year-old finger bone – discovered 11 years ago in Siberia’s Denisova Cave – yielded critically important genetic information.The research, led by E. Andrew Bennett from Paris Diderot University, revealed a finger that’s closer in shape to those of anatomically modern humans (Homo sapiens) than to those of Neanderthals – a surprise, given how closely related Denisovans are to Neanderthals.Fascinatingly, this finding doesn’t mean modern humans looked like Denisovans.Genetic evidence suggests modern humans interbred with Denisovans (and also Neanderthals), and that Neanderthals interbred with Denisovans.
Humans today are mosaics, our genomes rich tapestries of interwoven ancestries.With every fossil discovered, with every DNA analysis performed, the story gets more complex: We, the sole survivors of the genus Homo, harbor genetic fragments from other closely related but long-extinct lineages.Modern humans are the products of a sprawling history of shifts and dispersals, separations and reunions—a history characterized by far more diversity, movement and mixture than seemed imaginable a mere decade ago.Original story reprinted with permission from Quanta Magazine, an editorially independent publication of the Simons Foundation whose mission is to enhance public understanding of science by covering research developments and trends in mathematics and the physical and life sciences.But it’s one thing to say that Neanderthals interbred with the ancestors of modern Europeans, or that the recently discovered Denisovans interbred with some older mystery group, or that they all interbred with each other.“We’ve got this picture where these events are happening all over the place,” said Aylwyn Scally, an evolutionary geneticist at the University of Cambridge.
Scientists have successfully grown mini brains that, for the first time, produce brain waves resembling those seen in embryos and preterm infants.Researchers at the University of California, San Diego (UCSD) created the pea-sized "brains" by growing up stem cells in a petri dish and testing their activity and gene expression over 10 months.The study, published in the journal Cell Stem Cell on Thursday, is by the same research group that previously showed they were able to grow Neanderthal mini brains in the lab.This time around they've stuck to Homo sapiens coaxing human stem cells into becoming brain cells by placing them in a petri dish that simulates the environment of early brain development.The 3D mini brains, known as "organoids," then mature and create cellular networks of connected cells -- an important component of real brains that allows electrical signals to zip around."We are one step closer to have a model that can actually generate these early stages of a sophisticated neural network," said Alysson Muotri, a molecular biologist at UCSD and author on the new study, in a press release.
Anthropologists have found very few fossils of the Australopithecus anamensis species — a hominin ancestor that lived in Africa between 4 million and 2 million years ago.Now researchers have discovered that an Australopithecus anamensis skull found in 2016 is 3.8 million years old, making it the oldest Australopithecus skull ever found.Everything we know about the group of human ancestors called australopiths comes from just a few dozen fossils.The skull, nicknamed "MRD," was unearthed in 2016 in the Afar region in Ethiopia.That makes it the oldest Australopithecus skull ever found, edging out the previous record holder by about 200,000 years.The scientists' findings about the MRD, published today in the journal Nature, also show that it belonged to a member of the oldest species of australopith, called Australopithecus anamensis.
a Man is not likely to remain the world's only intelligent and self-aware species so far.We may soon see the beginning of the end for homo sapiens, is believed futuristen and author, James Lovelock.Perhaps it will take place during the course of our own lifetimes.In his most recent book, argues that the british biochemist, and futuristen, James Lovelock, to those of today's robots and ai systems will soon overtake the human, in terms of both the intelligence and the positions of the earth, " says NBC News.”The ones that do understand the future will not be what I choose to call the ’cyborgs’ who is going to be designed and built themselves,” he writes, among other things, in the book of Novocene, which describes the new era of the same name.to James Lovelock about the issue with their own idea of what a cyborg is because he is open to that there might be something that we can't even imagine."
Washington University paleoanthropologist Erik Trinkaus and his colleagues studied fossils, digital scans, photographs, and other archaeologists' reports from 77 Neanderthals and Homo sapiens who lived in Europe and Asia during the Pleistocene.Based on this sampling of remains with preserved inner ear bones, a surprising number of Neanderthals were running around Pleistocene Eurasia with swimmer's ear.Lifestyles of the cold, damp, and windyYou won't get swimmer's ear from a single cold-water surfing trip.If you're looking at a skeleton, swimmer's ear is the kind of trait that can tell you something about a person's habits in life.And they were more likely to develop severe cases, with bony growths large enough to mostly block the ear canal, as in the elderly Neanderthal now known to us only as Shanidar I.
Project Management and Task Management are often used interchangeably by us. On the face of it, they do seem similar but there are quite a few differences that set them apart.Also, it is important for us to understand, the key purposes that each of these solve.In generic terms, you may say how it matters – both of them help us organize ourselves, our work and activities.Agreed! To some extent yes. But that is not all they do.If it were that simplistic, we wouldn’t have a whole industry spun off to help businesses manage projects and run distinct project management offices (PMO) within their organizations.We will talk about that in a bit.But before that, what is challenging or say confusing for some is to understand that fine line between project and task management.Primarily because we are flooded with all sorts of software where some call themselves, task management software, collaboration tool, online workplace, work management software, project management tool, project collaboration tool and it goes on.Quite a mouthful, huh JWell, without getting lost in the marketing whirlwind let us stay focused on our core needs and what works best for us. More so, what to choose and when to switch between the two.Read the full article at Orangescrum Blog
One of the 210 000-year-old's skull, it can radically alter the way in which our history was made in Europe.the Discovery will move back to the time of Homo sapiens, the arrival of 40 000 or more a year.At the southern tip of the Greek mainland lies the Apidima caves.Which was found in 1978, two of the skulls that lay inkilade together in a crevice.The more intact and the skull was clearly nendertaldrag, and because they are found next to each other, of the same lump, it was expected that the other individual was a nendertalmänniska, and that the duo has escaped from the same period of time.However, scientists at the eberhard karls university, using the current analysis methods, the findings of a surprising result, as a foil to previous established theory.
It’s the earliest indication of our species on the continent, but the lack of supporting archaeological evidence raises some questions.The human fragment, dubbed Apidima 1, is just the back of the skull and was dated to 210,000 years ago, making it the oldest evidence of modern humans in Eurasia.Our species emerged in Africa around 100,000 years prior, with the earliest evidence of our species dating back to the Jebel Irhoud site in Morocco and the remarkable discovery of 315,000-year-old human fossils.Moreover, the earliest prior evidence of modern humans outside of Africa was discovered in Israel’s Misliya Cave – a partial jawbone dated to between 175,000 and 200,000 years ago.Regardless, this interpretation suggests a complicated migration scenario for early modern humans, as this is potential evidence of multiple dispersals from Africa, rather than one major exodus.“These results suggest that two late Middle Pleistocene human groups were present at this site – an early Homo sapiens population, followed by a Neanderthal population,” wrote the authors in the new study.
Modern humans emerged about 300,000 years ago in Africa.But anthropologists have found a 210,000-year-old Homo sapien skull in a Greek cave: the oldest modern human ever found in Eurasia.The discovery indicates that some humans left Africa far earlier than researchers previously thought and spread far wider.A study published today in the journal Nature revealed that the skull, which was originally discovered in Greece in the 1970s, belonged to a member of an early population of Homo sapiens and is about 210,000 years old.It predates what researchers previously considered to be the earliest evidence of Homo sapiens in Europe by more than 160,000 years.A tale of 2 skulls
DNA preserved in ancient bones and teeth has recently helped scientists reconstruct how groups of ancient humans migrated and mingled, and a new study now does the same thing for Neanderthals.Neanderthals lived in Eurasia for around 400,000 years, and it would be a huge stretch to assume they spent all that time as one big homogeneous population or that different groups of Neanderthals never migrated and mixed.Thanks to ancient DNA, we can now begin to see how Neanderthal groups moved around Eurasia long before Homo sapiens entered the mix.Evolutionary geneticist Stéphane Peyrégne and his colleagues recently sequenced DNA from two Neanderthals, both just over 120,000 years old.They belonged to two distinct groups of Neanderthals that last shared a common ancestor sometime between 130,000 and 145,000 years ago.It's also not very surprising that Scladina and HST have a lot of alleles in common with a Neanderthal who lived at Vindija Cave in Croatia 50,000 years ago.
Artificial emotional intelligence, or “emotion AI,” is emerging as a key component of the broader AI movement.The general idea is this: It’s all very well having machines that can understand and respond to natural-language questions, and even beat humans at games, but until they can decipher non-verbal cues such as vocal intonations, body language, and facial expressions, humans will always have the upper hand in understanding other humans.And it’s against that backdrop that countless companies are working toward improving computer vision and voice analysis techniques, to help machines detect the intricate and finely balanced emotions of a flesh-and-bones homo sapiens.One of those companies is Realeyes, a company that helps big brands such as AT, Mars, Hershey’s, and Coca-Cola gauge human emotions through desktop computers’ and mobile devices’ cameras.The London-based startup, which was founded in 2007, today announced a fresh $12.4 million round of funding from Draper Esprit, the VC arm of Japanese telecom giant NTT Docomo, Japanese VC fund Global Brain, Karma Ventures, and The Entrepreneurs Fund.Realeyes targets its technology at marketing campaigns, including videos and other creative assets such as photos or GIFs, as part of focus groups.
Neanderthals could have gone extinct due to a slight drop in their fertility rates, a new study finds.The last of the Neanderthals, the closest extinct relatives of modern humans, disappeared from Europe about 40,000 years ago.Previous research estimated that at its peak, the entire Neanderthal population in both Europe and Asia was quite small, totaling 70,000 at most.Scientists have long debated whether the dispersal of modern humans across the globe helped kill off Neanderthals, either directly through conflict or indirectly through the spread of disease."The disappearance of the Neanderthal population is an exciting subject — imagine a human group that has lived for thousands of years and is very well-adapted to its environment, and then disappears," study senior author Silvana Condemi, a paleoanthropologist at Aix-Marseille University in Marseille, France, told Live Science.Today, thanks to the results of genetic analysis, we know that the encounters between Neanderthals and sapiens were not always so cruel, and that interbreeding took place — even today's humans have genes of Neanderthal origin."
At least three-quarters of Americans, including 96 percent of members of Gen Z, shit with their smartphones.Among the top rated is an aluminum rack touting its “versatile convenience”: “the large, wide design not only holds your cell phone, it can be used as a rest for baby diapers, girl used pad ... or other accessories.”I used to DM during every BM.“Some have compared it to a religious experience, others an orgasm,” he says.“Do the deed and get up,” Sheth advises.Tudor Londoners hired “gong farmers” to schlep their droppings to the country, and land owners bequeathed dung heaps in their wills “because shit was worth something.” But the proliferation of private bathrooms in the 17th century, as psychoanalyst Dominique Laporte argues in History of Shit, accelerated the rise of individualism and negligence.
Dental evidence suggests Neanderthals and modern humans diverged from a common ancestor around 800,000 years ago—hundreds of thousands of years earlier than standard estimates.The finding could finally reveal the provenance of our shared ancestry, but some experts say the new evidence is unconvincing.Archaeological and genetic evidence suggests Neanderthals were romping around Eurasia around 400,000 years ago, and that modern humans, Homo sapiens, emerged in Africa around 300,000 years ago.The timing and geographic location of their momentous evolutionary split is not known, but studies of skulls and DNA suggests it happened around 500,000 to 600,000 years ago.The lone author of the new study, anthropologist Aida Gómez-Robles from the University College London, reached this conclusion after analysing Neanderthal teeth dated to 430,000 years ago.The Neanderthal teeth used in the study were previously found in Sima de los Huesos, a Spanish cave that hosted hominins during the Middle Pleistocene.
Equipped with only dining hall spoons, the clothes on their backs, and pure archaeological curiosity, undergraduates at Cambridge’s Newnham College in 1939 were given a crash course in field work when their professor, Dorothy Garrod, led them through the excavation of skeletal remains that had been unearthed on campus as a result of air-raid shelter preparations.As rudimentary as the excavation may have been, he said, “I’ve recently been involved with radiocarbon dating these skeletons, and have undertaken stable isotope analysis on their teeth as part of my PhD, so Professor Garrod’s legacy definitely still lives on!”Elected as the prestigious Disney Professor of Archaeology in 1939, Garrod was the first prehistorian and woman to chair a department at either Oxford or Cambridge, at a time when women were still not considered full members of the universities.In her work in the field, Garrod is credited with shifting the Eurocentric view of archaeology toward the Middle East, pioneering a new understanding of prehistory and relationships between Neanderthals and Homo sapiens, and bringing a new scientific focus to a field that was still in the infancy of wide academic acceptance.Garrod was born on May 5, 1892, to an intellectually elite family in London.Though Garrod’s father and grandfathers studied medicine—two of them even treated Queen Victoria directly—Garrod entered Newnham College in 1913 to study ancient and classical history.
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