Researchers find rust on the moon, which is weird but not entirely unexplainable.
Scientists are currently investigating why the surface of the moon is rusting. What baffles scientists so much is that there is no air or water on the moon, which are both required for hematite, which is a type of rust, to form. The new study looks at data gathered by the Indian Space Research Organization’s Chandrayaan-1 orbiter. The orbiter discovered … Continue reading
We're not talking about the programming language, either The Moon’s surface is peppered with flecks of rust, according to research published on Wednesday.…
A new study has found rust on the moon, which is weird but not entirely unexplainable.
We’re here to guide you through the coronavirus pandemic. Sign up to the Life newsletter for daily tips, advice, how-tos and escapism.Coughs are one of the key ways for Covid-19 to spread – so, keeping them to ourselves is a pretty important way to prevent the virus from doing the rounds. Especially come winter when we’re all indoors.A new study has analysed the different methods people use to cover coughs – from cupping a hand over the mouth to spluttering into the crook of your elbow, as well as wearing face covers.Researchers in India visualised the flow fields of coughs under common mouth-covering scenarios and determined which ones were best for keeping those droplets to a minimum (because let’s face it, nobody wants to be sprayed by another person’s cough). Related... What Parents Need To Know About Face Coverings For Kids Coughs tend to be warmer than their surrounding area, so study author Padmanabha Prasanna Simha, from the Indian Space Research Organisation teamed up with Prasanna Simha Mohan Rao, from the Sri Jayadeva Institute of Cardiovascular Sciences and Research, to use a technique called schlieren imaging and capture pictures of voluntary coughs from five test subjects.By tracking the motion of a cough over successive images, the team estimated velocity and spread of the expelled droplets.The researchers analysed the expelled droplets from an uncovered cough as well as a cough while wearing a surgical mask, wearing a N95 mask, putting a single hand over the mouth, cupping two hands over the mouth, covering the mouth with a folded handkerchief, as well as wearing a surgical mask and bringing a hand to cover the mouth area at the same time. They also looked at the effect of covering a cough with an uncovered elbow and sleeved elbow.Related... These Are The 16 Symptoms Of 'Long Covid' Identified By MPs Unsurprisingly, N95 masks were found to be the most effective at reducing the spread of a cough. They reduced a cough’s initial velocity massively and limited its spread to between 0.1 and 0.25 metres. An uncovered cough, in contrast, can travel up to three metres. Even a simple disposable mask can bring this all this down to 0.5 metres, the study found.People are often told to catch a cough in the crook of their elbow if they’re caught off guard. But if your arms are bare, this isn’t the best advice.Researchers found that unless the arm was covered by a sleeve, it could not form the proper seal against the nose necessary to obstruct airflow. A cough could then leak through any openings and project in many directions, they said.Coughing into a sleeved elbow is better, as if the arm is covered by a sleeve, it can act as an obstruction to the nose airflow and the spread into the environment is limited.Related... What Are Super-Spreader Events – And How Can You Avoid Them? What about your hands? Well, covering the nose and mouth with a single hand helped to reduce airflow velocity, but there was “significant leakage” through the gaps between the fingers, with some flow redirected upwards and downwards.When using two cupped hands to cover the nose and mouth, there were three leaks – through the gap between the palms, airflow redirected upwards and a third leak that passed through the gap left between the fourth and fifth fingers  while cupping.A folded handkerchief held by a hand and an elbow covered by a sleeve are the best options for attenuating the airflow from a cough if N95 masks are not available, researchers said. “If we can prevent clouds of such particles from traveling very far, it’s better than not doing anything,” said Simha. “In situations where sophisticated masks are not available, any mask is better than no mask at all for the general public in slowing the spread of infection.”Simha and Rao also emphasise masks must be used in conjunction with social distancing. That means keeping a minimum of 1m apart from others. “Adequate distancing is something that must not be ignored, since masks are not foolproof,” Simha said.Behavioural scientists at Warwick Business School recently suggested wearing face masks can adversely affect attitudes towards social distancing – as people feel more comfortable sitting or standing closer to others while wearing a mask.Ashley Luckman, a research fellow at Warwick Business School and lead author of the pre-print study, said: “Our findings appear to be a classic case of risk compensation. Wearing masks brings down the overall risk of spreading Covid-19, so people feel safer and are more willing to take other risks, such as decreasing the physical distance between them and others.“If the government’s aim is to minimise transmission of the virus, its guidelines must be clear enough to prevent this trade-off, emphasising that masks are not an alternative to social distancing.”Experts are still learning about Covid-19. The information in this story is what was known or available at the time of publication, but guidance could change as scientists discover more about the virus. To keep up to date with health advice and cases in your area, visit and You're Wearing A Mask Every Time You Use A Public Toilet, Right? These Symptoms Could Tell Covid-19 Apart From Flu This Winter What It's Like To Experience Hallucinations Linked To Covid-19
North Korea withdrew from the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons in 2003.It subsequently developed nuclear weapons, with five underground nuclear tests culminating in a suspected thermonuclear explosion (a hydrogen bomb) on 3 September 2017.Now a team of scientists, led by Dr K. M. Sreejith of the Space Applications Centre, Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO), have used satellite data to augment measurements of tests on the ground.The researchers find that the most recent test shifted the ground by a few metres, and estimate it to be equivalent to 17 times the size of the bomb dropped on Hiroshima in 1945.Dr Sreejith and his team turned to space for a solution.Using data from the ALOS-2 satellite and a technique called Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (InSAR), the scientists measured the changes on the surface above the test chamber resulting from the September 2017 explosion, sited at Mount Mantap in the northeast of North Korea.
Global Space Technology Market Research Report: Information by Subsystem (Orbit, Launch Platform, Launch Vehicle, and Payload), End Use (Civil, Commercial, and Military), and Region (North America, Europe, Asia-Pacific, and Rest of the World) — Forecast till 2025Market ScenarioInnovations in the manufacture and launch of satellites are driving the evolution of the space industry.The expansion of the global space technology market is attributed to factors such as increase in the number of satellite launches by countries such as the US, Russia, China, and India and rise in development of small satellites such as CubeSats, nanosatellites, and microsatellites.Additionally, the growing adoption of space farming by prominent space organizations such as NASA and the development of space hotels are expected to drive the growth of the market.Furthermore, the growing demand for satellites by the military forces for secured communications is expected to drive the market growth.For example, in August 2019, The United Launch Alliance (ULA) launched an Atlas V rocket carrying a satellite to provide jam-resistant secure communication to the US Army.However, growing concerns relating to space debris, high costs related to research and development, and stringent government regulations regarding satellite manufacturing are expected to hamper the growth of the market.The global space technology market is estimated to register a CAGR of nearly 5.4% between 2019 and 2025.Free sample report here: of the Global Space Technology MarketOn the basis of subsystem, the global space technology market has been divided into orbit, launch platform, launch vehicle, and payload.However, the launch vehicle segment is projected to expand at the highest CAGR during the forecast period.For instance, the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) developed a small satellite launch vehicle (SSLV).
After NASA’s Apollo 11 in 1969 which carried the first laser reflectors to the Moon, ISRO launched 2 tiny microlaser reflectors to the moon through Chandrayaan 2 from Satish Dhawan Space Centre, Sriharikota on 22 July 2019 at 2.43 PM IST (09:13 UTC).He referred lunar mission as a symbol of ” faith and fearlessness”, also praised how ISRO scientists dealt with technical snag while addressing Indians from ” Man ki Baat”Chandrayaan which means ” Moon vehicle ” in Sanskrit is aimed to deliver rover on the plane close to the uncharted lunar South Pole with the intention of investing water and other sources of energy on the moon.The payloads that include terrain mapping cameras to prepare a 3D map to analyze specific areas while a collimated large array soft x-ray spectrometer will map the majority of major rock-forming elements.Along with orbiter and rover, the lander wholly built with homegrown technology.Chandrayaan 2 consists of three segments: Orbiter, Rover, and Lander.
Without fanfare, an Indian spacecraft just completed its fifth year in orbit around Mars last week.As the spacecraft nears the end of its design lifetime, this is a moment that seems worth a little more recognition.When it launched the Mars Orbiter Mission in November, 2013, India had never attempted an interplanetary flight before.India made it on the country's first try, with a budget significantly less than $100 million.The spacecraft remains in good working order, with fuel for at least another year of operations.Before the Mars Orbiter Mission reached Mars, only the United States, Soviet Union, and European Space Agency had successfully sent robotic missions to Mars.
The Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) lost contact with its lunar lander as it headed towards the moon's surface on Sept. 6.Since losing contact, ISRO has engaged in a rescue mission of sorts, listening to the sky hoping to hear from what was to be the first spacecraft to explore the moon's south pole.As part of that mission, NASA has stepped in to help, sending the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) over the supposed landing site to join the search on Sept. 17.But the news is grim.There's no sign of Vikram.Early reports suggested the LRO was unable to locate the lander due to intense shadows as dusk descended on the moon.
Plus: Who needs a visa to Europe when you've got a Space Bridge?Roundup While NASA splashing the cash on Orion modules may have grabbed the headlines, the fate of India's lander continued to perplex, assembly of the Space Launch System continued and Blighty pondered a Space Bridge.The final join means the monster is ready to receive four RS-25 engines left over from the Shuttle programme, along with avionics.The stand notably saw service testing the first stage of the Saturn V.Should the Green Run testing go well, the stage will eventually be used to send an uncrewed mission around the Moon.The team expects things will be easier second time round, when building the core stage for Artemis II, which will take astronauts around the Moon.
Time is running out for India’s space agency to make contact with the country’s Vikram lander, which made a nerve-wracking descent to the surface of the Moon earlier this month.The Indian Space Research Organization lost contact with the unmanned probe when it was in the final stage of an audacious Moon landing attempt on Sept. 6.Vikram was subsequently spotted on the lunar surface by the space agency's Chandrayaan-2 orbiter and technicians have since been working to establish a connection with it.However, they are in a race against time to contact the lander, which contains the six-wheeled Pragyan rover.Vikram and its rover have a lifespan of one lunar day, which is equal to 14 Earth days, according to ISRO.This means that the probe will reach the end of its life on Sept. 20.
People on social media and in other conversations have emotionally reacted to say that this is how a leader should inspire and recognize hard work.Nevertheless, in April 2018, PM Modi had publicly praised Parameswaran Iyer, the then secretary in the Union Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation, for his contribution to the “Swachh Bharat Abhiyan”.He actually asked the TV cameras to focus on the official who sat among the audience.But here, I would like to breach the protocol and introduce Parameswaran Iyer to all.”PM Modi’s adulation is not just for the officers.Whenever a common person does a remarkable service to a social cause, PM comes out with all adulation.
On Saturday, at 1.35AM IST (Friday 4.05 EST/ 9.05 CET), India’s Chandrayaan-2 began its descent towards the moon’s surface.There was palpable excitement among the scientists at Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO), the country’s government-run space agency – and among millions following live streams on their TVs and devices at home.This is Mission Control Centre.Subsequently, communication from Lander to the ground stations was lost.— ISRO (@isro) September 6, 2019There was no clarity as to if the lander had crashed; ISRO said at the time the data was being analyzed.
It was sad times for the Indian space program on Friday when communications with the Chandrayaan-2 lunar lander went down in the final minutes before its planned landing on the moon.But all is not lost.Today, the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) announced it has located the Vikram module on the surface of the moon and is trying to re-establish communications.Inside the lander is a rover called Pragyan which was intended to analyze lunar soil and search for water, as well as measuring moonquakes.Currently, it’s not clear if either the lander or the rover is intact, after suffering what was described as a “hard landing.”“We have found the location of Lander Vikram on [the] lunar surface and [the] orbiter has clicked a thermal image of the lander,” K. Sivan, director of ISRO, said to Asian News International.
Space history rarely unfolds smoothly.The Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) hoped India would become just the fourth country to soft-land a spacecraft on the moon with its Chandrayaan-2 mission.Everything looked good for the descent of the Vikram lander on Friday until it lost communication at just 1.3 miles (2.1 kilometers) above the moon's surface.The lack of information left the world watching in suspense.We may now have a better idea of the lander's situation.The Press Trust of India reported Sunday that ISRO located the lander on the lunar surface.
As proud Indians, all of us were waiting for the success of Mission Chandrayan 2 for more than two months and the lander, Vikram, was supposed to land on the moon’s surface on the previous night.Most of us including the ISRO Chairman,Kailasavadivoo Sivan were disappointed after the space agency lost their connection with the lander Vikram which named after the renowned scientist and astronomer Vikram Sarabhai.The moment when the connection was lost was indeed depressing, as it alarmed everyone if the mission had failed.The heartbreaking time came when the space agency lost their contact with the lander just a few moments before the landing.The PM said that India is proud of its scientists, and hugged him.— Narendra Modi (@narendramodi) September 6, 2019
As proud Indians, all of us were waiting for the success of Mission Chandrayan 2 for more than two months and the lander, Vikram, was supposed to land on the moon’s surface on the previous night.Most of us including the ISRO Chairman,Kailasavadivoo Sivan were disappointed after the space agency lost their connection with the lander Vikram which named after the renowned scientist and astronomer Vikram Sarabhai.The moment when the connection was lost was indeed depressing, as it alarmed everyone if the mission had failed.The heartbreaking time came when the space agency lost their contact with the lander just a few moments before the landing.The PM said that India is proud of its scientists, and hugged him.— Narendra Modi (@narendramodi) September 6, 2019
India’s attempt to become the first nation to soft land a robotic spacecraft at the moon’s South Pole, an unexplored region, has ended in failure, the space agency said Saturday.Less than two miles above the lunar surface, the Vikram lander (named after Vikram Sarabhai, the father of India’s space program) lost communications with the mission control.We are full of confidence that when it comes to our space program, the best is yet to come,” he said.The lunar surface is filled with debris of spacecrafts that have attempted and failed to land in one piece.Because there is little to no atmosphere on the moon, parachutes can’t be used, leaving landers to rely completely on thrusters to modulate the speed.Chandrayaan-2, a roughly $140 million mission, is, in part, intended to study moon craters that are believed to contain water deposits, something Chandrayaan-1 found in 2008.
India’s space agency lost contact with its Chandrayaan-2 moon lander Friday as it attempted to do what it was made for: land on the moon.The lander attempted to descend to the moon’s south pole just after 1 p.m. PT, making it part of the way before the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) lost communication with it.The agency ended its livestream of mission control shortly after it lost contact with the spacecraft — but not before showing the despondent-looking faces of the mission control crew.It’s not clear whether the lander actually made it to the surface of the moon — we’ve asked the ISRO for more information, but it’s unlikely even they know the status of the lander.It could have crash-landed, or possibly is just experiencing an communication failure: signals from the lander cut out when as it entered its final braking phase and hit an altitude of 2.1 km or 1.3 miles above the moon’s surface.“The data is being analyzed,” one crew member said during the livestream.