(Johannes Gutenberg Universitaet Mainz) The diverse work of Mainz-based physicists in the field of nuclear magnetic resonance is being boosted by a new highly application-oriented approach: In October 2020, Dr. Danila Barskiy will join Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU) to set up a group focusing on nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, the objective being to explore approaches that do not require magnetic fields for chemical, biological, and medical applications.
(Johannes Gutenberg Universitaet Mainz) The recently approved ECHELON project, which is being given some EUR 2 million in funding by the Carl Zeiss Foundation, will start on January 1, 2021 and will run for five years. It will involve experts from the two top-level research areas SusInnoScience and M3ODEL at JGU working hand in hand and will combine the two major fields of quantum chemistry and multiscale modeling.
(Johannes Gutenberg Universitaet Mainz) Researchers have now not only been able to show that information storage in antiferromagnetic materials is fundamentally possible, but also to measure how efficiently information can be written electrically in insulating antiferromagnetic materials.
(Johannes Gutenberg Universitaet Mainz) The Big Data in Atmospheric Physics (BINARY) project at Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU) has been granted EUR 1.5 million in funding by the Carl Zeiss Foundation. The basic idea of this interdisciplinary project that unites atmospheric physics and computer science is to apply state-of-the-art methods of statistical data analysis and machine learning to various scientific problems in atmospheric physics.
(Johannes Gutenberg Universitaet Mainz) Scientists have developed a new method of observing chemical reactions in metal containers. For this purpose they use NMR spectroscopy, but with an unusual twist: There is no magnetic field.
Future computer technology based on insulating antiferromagnets is progressing.Physicists at Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU) in collaboration with Tohoku University in Sendai in Japan, the synchrotron sources BESSY-II at Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin (HZB), and Diamond Light Source, the UK's national synchrotron, have demonstrated how information can be written and read electrically in insulating antiferromagnetic materials.By correlating the change in the magnetic structure, observed with synchrotron based imaging, to the electrical measurements performed at JGU, it was possible to identify the writing mechanisms.This discovery opens the way toward applications ranging from ultra-fast logic to credit cards that cannot be erased by external magnetic fields - thanks to the superior properties of antiferromagnets over ferromagnets.Antiferromagnetic materials, interesting and not uselessAntiferromagnetic materials potentially allow for memory elements much faster and with higher storage capacity than what it is available now with conventional electronics.
Archaeologist Dr. Behzad Mofidi-Nasrabadi of Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU) excavated cuneiform texts on clay tablets at Haft Tappeh, dating back to the middle of the second millennium B.C.The site of Haft Tappeh lies in southwestern Iran and was once the city of Kabnak in the Elamite kingdom.Thanks to funding by the German Research Foundation (DFG) to the tune of EUR 500,000, a project is underway to digitally process the texts and make them available to the public online."An automated system for reading these texts has yet to be developed."The project will first focus on the transcription of around 500 original texts.To do this, the researchers at Mainz will use digital 3D-objects of the clay tablets that have been created with the aid of high-resolution scanners in a previous project.
The Carl Zeiss Foundation provides a total of EUR 3 million over the next five years under the auspices of its "Durchbrüche 2018" research program.Thanks to modern high-performance computing systems and the availability of big data, learning machines can already achieve astonishing results."Modern machine learning methods allow us to solve many problems using computers which just a few years ago, without doubt, only humans were able to handle successfully," stated Professor Michael Wand of the Institute of Computer Science at JGU."Of course we know exactly how the systems work, but why they work so well remains a mystery," said Wand.These networks are rather crude and simplistic imitations of natural biological neural networks.The core idea is that simple patterns are recognized first and then gradually, over several stages, they are assembled into more complex patterns - the greater the number of levels, the 'deeper' the network.
As the microelectronic industry is now shifting toward wearable electronic gadgets and electronic (e-)textiles, the comprising electronic materials, such as ferroelectrics, should be integrated with our clothes.Nylons, a family of synthetic polymers, were first introduced in the 1920s' for women's stockings and are nowadays among the most widely used synthetic fibers in textiles.They consist of a long chain of repeated molecular units, i.e.polymers, where each repeat unit contains a specific arrangement of hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen with carbon atoms.Besides the use in textiles, it was discovered that some nylons also exhibit so called "ferroelectric properties".This means that positive and negative electric charges can be separated and this state can be maintained.
The Electrosynthesis group at Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU) is further expanding its methods for the production of sustainable chemicals from lignin.The research lab, headed by Professor Siegfried Waldvogel at the JGU Institute of Organic Chemistry, is coordinating a partnership consortium of businesses and institutes of higher education.The SElectiveLI project was set up by the EU and an industrial consortium and is being funded through the Bio-based Industries Joint Undertaking (BBI JU) Public-Private Partnership.Over the next three years, EUR 2.9 million will be provided to reach an ambitious goal: Working together with numerous European partners in this project, the aim of Waldvogel's team is to show how lignosulfonate, a waste product of the paper and pulp industry, can be used to produce valuable 'green' compounds.This strategy avoids the use of valuable and limited resources for reagents and catalysts that would otherwise be necessary to enable such reactions.A further advantage is the fact that it is also possible to use excess electric energy for electrochemical purposes generated from renewable sources.
Contributing to this is the new MiLiQuant research project in which businesses and universities are cooperating to develop new applications for quantum technology.The German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) will be supporting the project to the tune of approximately EUR 9.4 million over the next three years to early 2022.Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU) and Robert Bosch GmbH in Gerlingen are partners in the MiLiQuant project.Further partners are Q.ant GmbH in Stuttgart, Carl Zeiss AG in Jena, Nanoscribe GmbH in Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen, and Paderborn University.In the collaborative project MiLiQuant, short for "Miniaturized light sources for use in industrial quantum sensors and quantum imaging devices", the researchers enhance diode laser beam sources so that they can be employed in industrial quantum technology applications.The goal is to develop miniaturized, frequency- and power-stable beam sources that can also be used outside laboratories.
Superabsorbent materials in baby diapers and soft contact lenses seem to be worlds apart but have one thing in common: They are made of polymer gels that are permeable to certain substances.Soft contact lenses, for instance, must allow the delivery of ions and oxygen to the cornea, which means that they need to ensure the transport of both hydrophilic and hydrophobic molecules.Similarly, polymer gels that swell in different fluids and that are therefore permeable to a variety of substances can potentially be used as membranes in fuel cells or in antimicrobial coatings.A new alliance of six German research institutions is going to investigate this aspect over the coming years.The German Research Foundation (DFG) has given its approval to the new Research Unit 2811 on "Adaptive Polymer Gel with Controlled Network Structure" and will be funding it to the tune of some EUR 2 million over the next three years.He has been Professor of Physical Chemistry of Polymers at Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU) since 2016 and is the research unit's spokesperson.
In short, the storage capacity we need is growing rapidly.One possibility is the racetrack memory device where the data is stored in nanowires in the form of oppositely magnetized areas, so-called domains.The results of this research have recently been published in the scientific journal Nature Materials.A research team from Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU) in Germany, together with colleagues from Eindhoven University of Technology in the Netherlands as well as Daegu Gyeongbuk Institute of Science and Technology and Sogang University in South Korea, has now made a discovery that could significantly improve these racetrack memory devices."We were able to demonstrate a hitherto undiscovered interaction," explained Dr. Kyujoon Lee of Mainz University."It occurs between two thin magnetic layers separated by a non-magnetic layer."
Its 24/7 availability and broad range of information offers allows for the creation of brand-new learning methods - not only for acquiring domain-specific and general knowledge but also for developing new learning skills.As a new learning space, the Internet has had a particularly profound effect at the university level, where the boundaries between originally very different types of learning are now becoming blurred.The former is clearly much more dynamic, variable, and far less formalized than the latter, especially in comparison with the traditional, highly-formalized types of learning we see at universities.Another remarkable aspect of this development relates to the increasing significance that algorithms based on machine learning are having on learning processes.Learning on Internet-based platforms is becoming more and more dependent on the 'externalization' of human learning activities and data processing operations.Researchers at Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU), Goethe University Frankfurt, and Technische Universität Darmstadt are aiming to fill in the gaps in cooperation with the German Leibniz Institute for Research and Information on Education (DIPF), Technische Universität Kaiserslautern, and the German Research Center for Artificial Intelligence (DFKI).