Jewelry or ornament means decorative items like rings, earrings, necklaces, chains, bracelets, brooches, nose rings, anklets created from materials like gold, rose gold, silver, platinum, precious stone, etc.You can see Designer Jewellery Online having different designs, styles, and patterns.Some types of outfits need any particular type of ornament.There are some antique jewelry archaeologists found are Croatian Neanderthal Jewelry made before 135,000 years ago, Nassarius Shell Beads made around 100,000 years ago, Chlorite Bracelet made around 50,000 to 70,000 years ago, etc.Rose gold jewelry vs. Gold jewelry Rose gold is a mixture of some percentage of pure gold and other metals which creates harder material than gold to work with.Pure gold comes in a yellow shade whereas rose gold comes in a pinkish shade.The price of pure gold jewelry and rose gold jewelry depends on how many karats is used in the making process of them.In gold jewelry, to make a metal alloy with gold, silver, copper, and zinc is added.
Newly sequenced Neanderthal Y chromosomes hint at a complex history of mixture.
2020 is shaping up to be a bumpy year for startups as they navigate the financial fallout of the coronavirus pandemic. Even so, through the first half of the year, healthcare startups managed to raise hundreds of millions, with some hitting unicorn status. There are 21 healthcare startups that have reached unicorn status — or the $1 billion and over valuation mark — according to valuations determined by PitchBook, CB Insights, and Business Insider's reporting. Click here for more BI Prime stories. 2020 is gearing up to be a pivotal year for healthcare and biotech startups. In 2019, a handful of health startups went public with valuations above $1 billion. Then, the year started off with one public offering, when One Medical made its stock-market debut at the end of January, surging to a $2.7 billion valuation on its first day of trading. Amid the coronavirus pandemic, healthcare startups have found themselves having to navigate a new challenge. Some have tackled the crisis head-on, and some — often simultaneously — have found themselves laying off portions of their workforce. In the first quarter of 2020, healthcare startups raised $14.6 billion, up from the $13.5 billion the companies raised in the same period of 2019. In the second quarter, they raised $18.1 billion, a new record, per CB Insights. Never miss out on healthcare news. Subscribe to Dispensed, our weekly newsletter on pharma, biotech, and healthcare. This article was updated on July 27 to add Ro. It was previously updated to remove Alto Pharmacy, add VillageMD, and include new funding for Oscar Health.Rani Therapeutics - $1 billion The biotech startup Rani Therapeutics is taking on a problem that has eluded companies for decades — finding a way to turn injectable drugs into pills for people living with chronic conditions. The approach has the potential to upend billion-dollar markets for drugs such as insulin and treatments, like Humira, for autoimmune conditions.   The San Jose, California, company raised $53 million in February from Alphabet's venture-investment arm GV. To date, Rani has raised $142 million. Hims - $1.1 billion Be it depression, hair loss, or erectile dysfunction, Hims wants men to "take care of themselves" without fear of stigma via its suite of telemedicine and personal care offerings. Besides online primary care visits and therapy, it sells hair, skin, and sex products directly to consumers. Its sister site, Hers, offers similar services for women. Hims raised $100 million in its Series C funding round at the end of last year, bringing its total cash to $197 million, according to a spokesperson for the company. Its investors include Atomic, Maverick Ventures, Forerunner Ventures, Founders Fund, 8VC, and Redpoint Ventures.  Read more: Hot startups like Hims and Roman are marketing Viagra to young men online, but their approach raises 2 big questions Clover Health - $1.2 billion Clover Health sells Medicare Advantage health-insurance plans. When people in the US turn 65, they can choose to be part of traditional Medicare or Medicare Advantage, which is operated through private insurers like Clover and often provides additional healthcare benefits. The hope for San Francisco-based Clover and other technology-based health insurers is to use data to improve patients' health. Clover lost $67.4 million in 2019, according to state insurance filings reviewed by Business Insider. That compares to a $40.9 million loss in 2018.  Clover is growing its membership, adding roughly 10,000 new members in 2019, and enrolling an additional 12,000 going into 2020. 2019 was a big year for Clover. In March 2019, the company said it was laying off 25% of its workforce, or about 140 employees, as part of a restructuring. That came on the heels of Clover raising $500 million in January 2019, bringing the total funds the company has raised to $925 million. Its most recent valuation was $1.2 billion, according to PitchBook data from before the $500 million round. Read more: We just got a look at the latest financials for health startups like Bright and Oscar. They reveal the challenges facing the insurers as they keep growing their footprints. Rakuten Medical - $1.2 billion Headquartered in San Diego, Rakuten Medical develops precision-targeted cancer therapies designed to treat solid tumors.  The biotech is led by the Japanese billionaire Hiroshi Mikitani, who is also founder and CEO of the large Japanese e-commerce firm Rakuten. Mikitani said he was inspired to fund the cancer research after his father was diagnosed with pancreatic cancer in 2012. Rakuten Medical has raised about $471 million, according to PitchBook. Both Mikitani and Rakuten have invested in Rakuten Medical. Lyell - $1.2 billion The San Francisco biotech company is focused on treating cancer with cell therapies. Lyell's goal is to develop cell-based immunotherapies for cancer, with a focus on CAR-Ts and solid tumors. In March, the company raised a total $493 million in funding from undisclosed investors. The company has raised a total of $851 million, according to CB Insights, from investors including Foresite Capital Management, Arch Venture Partners, and Altitude Life Science Ventures.   Butterfly Network - $1.3 billion Butterfly Network, a company that developed an iPhone-based ultrasound device, wants to make the technology more accessible to doctors and healthcare workers so they can make more precise diagnoses on the move.  The device, called Butterfly iQ, plugs into the iPhone and isn't much bigger than the phone itself. It's been approved by the Food and Drug Administration for use in imaging the abdomen, bladder, and heart.  In September 2018, Butterfly raised $250 million from investors such as Fidelity, Fosun Pharma, and the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. In total, the company's raised $370 million.  Ro - $1.5 billion Ro is a telehealth company that operates through three "digital health clinics": Rory for women's health, Roman for men's health, and Zero for smoking cessation, a spokesperson said. It treats nearly 20 conditions, including allergies, sexually transmitted diseases, and eczema.  The startup recently raised $200 million in a round led by General Catalyst, bringing its total funding to $376 million and its valuation to $1.5 billion, the company said. It plans to use the money for remote monitoring tech for chronic conditions, at-home testing, and a bigger engineering team.  Besides its normal businesses, which also includes an online pharmacy, Ro's been screening coronavirus patients with an online assessment and connecting them to physicians.  Read more: Telemedicine startups have raised hundreds of millions as the coronavirus puts them to the test. Meet the 12 startups forging a new path for healthcare. HeartFlow - $1.6 billion HeartFlow is trying to make the process of finding blockages in the heart a lot less invasive. Using imaging from a CT scan, HeartFlow builds a 3D model that pinpoints the blockages associated with coronary-artery disease, a heart condition that affects millions of Americans and is the leading cause of death in the US.  HeartFlow is based in Redwood City, California, and reached unicorn status in 2018 after raising $240 million. In total, the company has raised $532 million.  Zocdoc - $1.8 billion Zocdoc helps patients book doctors' appointments and check in for them — everything from primary care to dental to optometry appointments. Users can search based on procedures, conditions, and even a particular doctor they might want to book an appointment with. In 2019, the company changed the way it pays its doctors in some states, moving from a subscription model to one that charges a per-booking fee. Some doctors haven't been happy about the switch. Zocdoc, which is based in New York, most recently raised $130 million in a Series D round in August 2015, bringing its total raised to $223 million. The company's last reported valuation is from 2015, according to PitchBook. As part of the pandemic, Zocdoc introduced video visits for the providers on its platform to use with patients.  Devoted Health - $1.8 billion Devoted Health wants to reinvent how we care for aging Americans. The company started selling Medicare Advantage plans in parts of Florida for 2019. In its second year, its enrollment jumped, in line with the company's expectations.  The company's plans might look a bit different from traditional insurance in that Devoted plans to do more than pay for visits to doctors and hospitals. It's also hiring nurses and other employees directed at keeping seniors healthier and out of the hospital. Devoted was founded in 2017 by brothers Ed and Todd Park. Before Devoted, Todd Park cofounded the health IT company Athenahealth and served as the chief technology officer of the US during the Obama administration. Ed Park, who serves as Devoted's CEO, was formerly the chief technology officer and later chief operating officer at Athenahealth. In October 2018, the Waltham, Massachusetts-based company raised $300 million in a Series B round led by Andreessen Horowitz, bringing its total funding to $369 million. Read more: We got a look at the slide deck that buzzy startup Devoted Health used to hit a $1.8 billion valuation before it signed up any customers Bright Health - $2.2 billion Bright Health provides health plans for people under the Affordable Care Act and to seniors in Medicare Advantage. It was founded in 2016 and has raised more than $1 billion after closing a $635 million round in December. A representative for the company declined to provide its updated valuation, though according to Pitchbook, the valuation is $2.2 billion. Minneapolis-based Bright Health posted a net loss of $41.8 million for 2019, a deeper net loss than the $17.5 million loss the company had in 2018. The company made $208.5 million in revenue and recorded $176 million in medical claims, spending about 84% of the premiums it took in on medical expenses. In total, Bright had nearly 59,000 members by the end of 2019, the majority of which were on plans bought in the ACA's individual markets. Bright in January announced plans to acquire Brand New Day, a health plan that gave it a big foothold in the Medicare Advantage market. The terms of the deal were not disclosed, and the acquisition officially closed on May 1.  The company said in July 2019 that it would operate in parts of 12 states in 2020, roughly double its geographic footprint for 2019. The Brand New Day acquisition brings that count to 13.   Read more: $2.2 billion Bright Health just struck a deal to buy a health plan and gain a big foothold in the lucrative Medicare Advantage market 23andMe - $2.5 billion In 2018, 23andMe, a company best known for its genetics tests designed to tell you information as varied as the amount of Neanderthal DNA you have and your health risks, gained a higher valuation after striking a $300 million deal with drugmaker GlaxoSmithKline. The company, founded in 2006, has millions of customers and a number of partnerships with major pharmaceutical companies. With GSK, 23andMe has a 4-year-long development deal to use the data 23andMe has collected to discover and develop new medications. Using 23andMe's data, GSK is also working on an experimental drug to treat Parkinson's disease in patients with a particular mutation.  But the consumer genetics market has been facing a big slowdown this year, leading the company to lay off 100 employees. Its rival, Ancestry, also laid off roughly 100 employees. In the wake of the pandemic, 23andMe has been studying genetic associations to find links between genetics and the severity of COVID-19, the disease caused by the virus.  To date, 23andMe has raised $792 million.  Read more: The DNA testing industry is stuck in a rut. Here's how 23andMe and Ancestry are plotting their next moves. GoodRx - $2.8 billion GoodRx gathers drug prices at more than 70,000 pharmacies across the US and compares them on its site, according to the company. It's generated more than $18 billion in savings, saving the average customer about $355 per year, according to GoodRx.  But what started as a one-stop shop for drug price comparisons is moving into telehealth. Last year, GoodRx acquired a telehealth startup for an undisclosed amount and now offers online care via HeyDoctor by GoodRx. Most visits are about $20 and don't require insurance.  In response to the coronavirus outbreak, the site also came up with a way to compare the costs of online doctor visits as more people seek healthcare from the safety of their homes.  Worth $2.8 billion, the Santa Monica-based startup's investors include Silver Lake, Francisco Partners, and Spectrum Partners.  Read more: $2.8 billion pharmacy startup GoodRx just got into the business of prescribing medications, and it shows how a long-hyped technology is taking off in healthcare Oscar Health - $3.2 billion New York-based health insurer Oscar Health sells insurance in the individual exchanges set up by the Affordable Care Act and to small businesses. Going into 2020, Oscar had enrolled 420,000 people, a 63% increase from the start of 2019. It entered a new market in 2020, offering private Medicare Advantage plans to seniors. Read more: Buzzy health startup Oscar is making a big bet on a crucial change to how you get your healthcare. The CEO shared how he thinks that will happen. Oscar has raised nearly $1.5 billion from investors enticed by its promise of a new tech-driven approach to health insurance. The company most recently raised $225 million in June from investors including Alphabet, General Catalyst, Khosla Ventures, Baillie Gifford, and Coatue. As of March 2018 — prior to two more recent rounds of funding —  PitchBook valued the company at $3.2 billion.  Read more: We just got a look at the latest financials for health startups like Bright and Oscar. They reveal the challenges facing the insurers as they keep growing their footprints. VillageMD- $3.3 billion Chicago-based VillageMD was founded in 2013 with the idea of giving primary care doctors more resources to help them manage the care of their patients.  Rather than get paid based on the number of visits doctors have with patients, VillageMD works with insurers so that it gets paid based on how well it cares for patients, adding in monitoring services, transportation, and other ways to keep patients healthier. In July, VillageMD said it will open 500 to 700 primary-care clinics in partnership with Walgreens. As part of the deal, Walgreens made an initial $250 million equity investment in VillageMD and plans to invest $1 billion in total over the next three years in equity and convertible debt. That'll give Walgreens a 30% stake in the company by the end of the investment and values VillageMD at at least $3.3 billion.  Prior to Walgreens' investment, VillageMD had raised $216 million from investors including Kinnevik and Oak HC/FT. Kinnevik invested an additional $25 million in July as part of the Walgreens investment, bringing the total raised by VillageMD to $491 million. Read more: Walgreens just made a $1 billion bet on bringing doctor's offices into its pharmacies, and it shows how the pharmacy giant is taking on CVS and Walmart as they beef up their health ambitions Grail - $3.87 billion Since it got its start in 2016, Grail has raised more than $1.75 billion from the likes of Jeff Bezos and Bill Gates, along with big names from the pharmaceutical, tech, and healthcare industries, including Johnson & Johnson Innovation, Arch Venture Partners, Amazon, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Celgene, and Merck. The idea behind its cancer-screening test is to identify the tiny bits of cancer DNA that are hanging out in our blood but are undetectable. If companies like Grail are successful, they would be the first to pull off a cancer-detecting blood test that works proactively. The concept is similar to liquid biopsy tests, which use blood samples to sequence genetic information in that blood to figure out how tumors are responding to a certain cancer therapy. In 2017, Grail acquired Cirina, a Hong Kong company that is also looking at early cancer detection. On May 6, Grail said it raised an additional $390 million in funding. In total, the company's raised $1.9 billion. The company has started presenting data, including some on early-stage lung-cancer detection, and has started releasing some of its results from its early-stage multi-cancer-detection tests.  Ginkgo - $4 billion Ginkgo Bioworks is a startup that designs microbes to produce substances like fragrances and medications. The Boston-based company sends the programmed bugs to partner companies that put them to use. In September, Ginkgo raised an additional $290 million. In total, the company has raised $719 million and a $350 million fund to invest in spinout companies that use its technology.  Intarcia Therapeutics — $4.1 billion Intarcia Therapeutics, a Gates Foundation-backed biotech, is developing implantable devices intended to treat conditions like Type 2 diabetes and prevent HIV. In September 2018, the FDA put the Boston-based company's plans for its diabetes implant on hold, citing manufacturing concerns. The company resubmitted the implant for approval in September. In March, the company raised $73 million of convertible debt funding from undisclosed investors. To date, the company's raised $2 billion.  Tempus — $5 billion Chicago-based Tempus got its start in 2015, and then rocketed into unicorn territory. The startup, which was founded by Groupon founder Eric Lefkofsky, hopes to help doctors use data to find better cancer treatments for patients, using both clinical data — information about which medications patients have taken and how they responded to them — and data it sequences in its lab based on the tumors and hereditary genetics of cancer patients. Tempus raised $200 million in Series F venture funding from Novo Holdings, Revolution Group, and New Enterprise Associates in May 2019 and raised an additional $100 million in March 2020. So far, the company has raised a total of $620 million.    Roivant - $7 billion Roivant Sciences is a company known for developing drugs that other pharmaceutical companies have abandoned. The company was founded by CEO Vivek Ramaswamy, who's 34. Through its subsidiary companies, it identifies experimental drugs that other companies may have stopped developing for one reason or another that still have potential to get approved and go on the market. So far, it has launched 17 subsidiary "-vant" companies, including a number that have gone public. Those include the neurodegenerative-disease-drug developer Axovant Sciences, the women's health company Myovant Sciences, and the urology company Urovant Sciences. In December, the company entered a deal with Sumitomo Dainippon Pharma. Before that, the company had raised $200 million from investors a little more than a year after raising $1.1 billion in a monster round led by SoftBank's Vision Fund. The $200 million round valued the company at $7 billion.    Samumed - $12.4 billion Samumed is the highest-valued startup on this list. The San Diego-based company has attracted a total of $764 million and a heady valuation thanks to a pipeline of what could be revolutionary treatments to regenerate hair, skin, bones, and joints. The company's science hinges on something called progenitor stem cells. Samumed hopes to manipulate the pathway that makes these progenitor stem cells spring into action so that they don't cause conditions like hair loss or osteoarthritis.  The company had previously raised funding from backers including high-net worth people and sovereign funds rather than venture capital. Samumed's chief business officer, Erich Horsley, said in May 2018 that the company could go public in the next three to four years. Read more about Samumed's progress with these treatments.
Science is an ongoing process, which means new discoveries often upend old theories. Contrary to what many people learned in school, Pluto is not a planet (well, sort of), dinosaurs didn't look like the pictures in your textbook, and atoms aren't the most basic components of matter. Here are some science "facts" you may have learned in school that aren't true. Visit Business Insider's homepage for more stories. If you were to file into a classroom and open your notebook for science class today, the subject matter might be a little different from when you were in school. Our body of scientific knowledge is constantly growing and changing. New discoveries or studies often lead to changes in old theories and sometimes even invalidate them altogether. That means some of the "facts" you learned in school aren't necessarily true anymore. For example, dinosaurs probably didn't look the way your textbook depicted them. The origins of Homo sapiens aren't as neat as the timeline you might have learned. And many of the nutrition and exercise guidance from your health classes has been debunked. Here are some science facts you may have learned in school that aren't true anymore.SEE ALSO: 9 things that aren't helping the environment as much as you think they are, from recycling to carbon offsets Myth: We don't know what caused the dinosaurs' mass extinction. Scientists used to scratch their heads about what caused the extinction that ended the age of dinosaurs — theories ranged from low dino sex drives to a world overrun by caterpillars. But in 1978, geophysicists stumbled upon Chicxulub, a crater in the Yucatan Peninsula made by the 6-mile-wide asteroid that likely triggered the dinosaurs' demise. Since that discovery, researchers have uncovered more details about the asteroid's impact. The collision caused a mile-high tsunami, sparked wildfires, and released billions of tons of sulfur into the atmosphere, blotting out the sun for years. This year, new climate modeling laid a popular competing theory about the dinosaurs' extinction to rest. Many scientists had previously suggested that eruptions of a giant range of volcanoes in modern-day India — called the Deccan traps — contributed to the dinosaurs' downfall. The sulfur gases they released were thought to have rapidly cooled the climate, much like the asteroid's global dust cloud. But recent climate-modeling research found that those eruptions weren't a big factor. A January study found that the major temperature changes at the time only aligned with the asteroid impact. "It was the asteroid 'wot done it," Paul Wilson, a paleoclimatologist who co-authored that paper, told the BBC. Another study found that the Deccan volcano eruptions may have actually helped re-warm the climate after the asteroid hit. Myth: Dinosaurs were scaly, earthy-colored lizards. Dinosaurs likely had feathers. Feathers are rarely preserved in the fossil record, but scientists have uncovered feathered dino fossils in China and Siberia, suggesting plumage was common across the great lizards. "Probably that means the common ancestor of all dinosaurs had feathers," Pascal Godefroit, a paleontologist who wrote a 2014 study on a key Siberian fossil, told National Geographic. Underneath the feathers, dinos could have had brightly colored scales, like many modern-day lizards. Feathers have never been found on a T. rex specimen, but fossils of other tyrannosaur species do have preserved feathers. So paleontologists can assume the T. rex had them too. Though adult T. rexes were mostly covered in scales, scientists think they had patches of feathers on attention-getting areas like the head and tail. Myth: The T. rex was a running, roaring lizard like the one you saw in "Jurassic Park." Though a terrifying predator, the "king of the dinosaurs" probably did not roar or sprint. The dinosaur's long stride could carry it as fast as 25 mph, but it never reached a suspended gait, since it always had at least one leg on the ground. A 2016 study suggested that instead of roaring, the T. rex probably cooed, hooted, and made deep-throated booming sounds like the modern-day emu. Myth: Dinosaurs laid eggs with hard shells. Early dinosaurs may have laid leathery, soft-shelled eggs, like turtles do today. Paleontologists recently found fossils of such eggs from two dinosaur species in the Gobi Desert. Myth: Neanderthals were dumb brutes who didn't mingle with Homo sapiens. Evidence of Neanderthal cave art in Europe significantly predates similar paintings by Homo sapiens. Our extinct cousins also crafted tools and ornaments out of stone and bone, made tar glue from birch bark that allowed them to attach wooden handles to stone tools, and cooked with fire (though they may have relied on lightning strikes to start the flames). Perhaps this intelligence is what inspired early humans to breed with Neanderthals and Denisovans, another early hominin species. Myth: Homo sapiens first emerged 200,000 years ago in east Africa. Groups of Homo sapiens may have evolved at the same time all over Africa instead of in one primary location, a 2018 paper suggested. A skull discovered in 2017 also showed that was happening about 300,000 years ago, further back in history than previously thought. Not all of these groups would have looked identical, but they may have been close enough to all be considered Homo sapiens. The groups would have interacted with one another and migrated across the continent. So instead of emerging in one area in eastern or southern Africa and then spreading from there, distantly related groups of humans across the continent could have become more similar over time. Read more: A handful of recent discoveries has transformed our entire understanding of human history Myth: Humans first reached North America 13,000 years ago by crossing the Bering land bridge. Archaeologists have discovered evidence of much earlier human presence. Most recently, they uncovered nearly 2,000 stone tools, ash, and other human artifacts in a high-altitude cave in Mexico, some of which date back 30,000 years. Scientists have also found fossilized human poop that's about 14,000 years old in an Oregon cave. Artifacts from a settlement in southern Chile were dated to between 14,500 and 19,000 years old. And a horse jaw bone that bore human markings suggested humans occupied the Bluefish Caves of Yukon, Canada 24,000 years ago. But none of these discoveries pushed the timeline as far back as the Mexican cave artifacts. The evidence from the cave suggests humans lived in North America during the last Ice Age — long before the Bering land bridge existed. Lorena Becerra-Valdivia, an archaeological scientist at the Universities of Oxford and New South Wales, told Business Insider that "the new findings suggest that humans likely took a coastal route." That means they were probably seafarers who arrived by boat, possibly from modern-day Russia or Japan. Then they expanded south by sailing down the Pacific Coast. Myth: Camels store water in their humps. Camels humps store fat, which the animals burn for fuel when traveling long distances with limited resources. A camel can use that fat to replace about three weeks' worth of food, according to Animal Planet. It's the camel's red blood cells that enable it to go a week without drinking water. Unlike other creatures, camels have oval-shaped blood cells that are more flexible and enable them to store large quantities of water. Myth: Bats are blind. Many bats rely on echolocation to navigate, but that doesn't mean they can't see. Myth: The food pyramid is the gold standard of nutrition. The US Department of Agriculture released the Food Guide Pyramid in 1992, but much of the nutritional advice it offered has since been debunked. The pyramid made no distinction between refined carbs like white bread and whole grains like brown rice. There is also no distinction between the healthiest proteins (like beans, nuts, and fish) and red meat, which can increase one's risk of cancer and heart disease. The chart also banished healthy fats to the "use sparingly" tip of the pyramid, lumping them in with added sugars and trans fats from processed oils and packaged foods. In the mid-1990s, Harvard researchers estimated that trans fats led to roughly 50,000 preventable deaths each year in the US. However, research has found that the healthy unsaturated fats found in foods like nuts, seeds, and avocados are crucial to a balanced diet. Myth: Milk is good for your bones. Much of the hype about milk comes from dairy industry marketing campaigns, though the USDA helped too. A page on the department's website tells us that adults should drink three cups of milk per day, mostly for calcium and vitamin D, and that kids should drink two to three cups to build strong bones. However, multiple studies have found no association between drinking more milk (or taking calcium and vitamin D supplements) and experiencing fewer bone fractures. Some studies have even found an association between drinking milk and higher overall mortality; that doesn't mean milk consumption was the cause, but it's not an endorsement. Another page on the USDA's website has changed the three-cup recommendation to encompass the entire dairy category, which includes yogurt and cheese. Myth: Crunches and sit-ups are great for your core. A lot of us practiced this move in gym class, but many experts have told Business Insider that crunches are not efficient core-builders and that they can damage your back and neck if you do them wrong. The nonprofit American Council on Exercise says that when it comes to crunches, a lot of people "perform this movement too rapidly" and cheat by using their hip flexors. "This technique tilts the pelvis anteriorly, increasing the stress on the low back, and should be avoided," the council says on its website. Read more: Traditional sit-ups and crunches are terrible for you, according to personal trainers — here's what they suggest instead Myth: Drinking alcohol kills your brain cells. Alcohol can damage the connections between your brain cells, but it doesn't actually kill them. Still, many studies have found that excessive drinking over long periods can damage the brain, and children with fetal alcohol syndrome often have fewer brain cells. Studies have also found that heavy (and even moderate) drinkers can have increased brain shrinkage. Myth: Diamonds come from coal. Diamonds and coal are both made from carbon, but most of Earth's diamonds are much older than its coal. Diamonds also form much deeper in the Earth's high-pressure mantle, via a process that has nothing to do with coal. Coal, meanwhile, is found in Earth's crust. Myth: There's a dark side of the moon. There is a side of the moon that we never see from Earth, but it's not dark all the time. The moon is tidally locked with Earth, which means that we are always looking at the same side of it. As Earth spins, and our cold rock satellite rotates around it, sunlight falls across all sides of the moon. Myth: Pluto is the ninth planet. (Well, this one's complicated.) The International Astronomical Union originally classified Pluto as the ninth planet that orbits the sun. But in 2005, Eris, another really big space rock that orbits the sun, was discovered. It's 27% more massive than Pluto, though a 2015 finding later revealed Pluto to be slightly larger. That forced the IAU to rethink what a planet actually is. The IAU decided on criteria that neither Pluto nor Eris met, so neither could be considered one of the major planets that orbits the sun. Instead, they're both dwarf planets. So yes, Pluto is a planet — it's just a dwarf planet. Myth: Mars is a desert of red dust with no water. Three years' worth of radar data suggests that a lake of liquid water might lurk beneath Mars' polar ice caps, a study published last year said. Previous findings also indicated that liquid water might flow seasonally across Mars' surface, though the discovery has been thrown into question. Myth: Black holes are invisible. In school, you may have learned that black holes swallow everything around them, including light. That's sort of true. A black hole is an extremely compact, massive object with a powerful gravitational pull — so powerful that not even light can escape. But that reach only extends a few billion miles. The dark center that swallows up light is called the event horizon, and it's usually surrounded by a glowing circle of dust, rock, and other space debris that is slowly falling towards it. This region of the black hole, called the accretion disk, produces plenty of visible light. That's how scientists got the first picture of a black hole last year. Sometimes collisions or reactions within the accretion disk even produce explosions of bright light. Myth: Nothing moves faster than light. Light moves at 299,792,458 meters per second in a vacuum, but it slows down when it travels through various substances. For example, light moves at about 75% of that speed through water and about 41% of that speed through diamond. Electrons, neutrons, or neutrinos can outpace photons of light in such media — though they have to bleed off energy as radiation when they do. The expanding fabric of space also once exceeded light-speed during the Big Bang, and physicists think wormholes and quantum entanglement might defy the rule as well. Read more: The speed of light is torturously slow, and these 3 simple animations by a scientist at NASA prove it Myth: The phases of matter are liquid, solid, and gas (and maybe plasma). This may not be elementary-school-science material, but there are many more states of matter, including quark-gluon plasma, superfluids, Bose-Einstein condensates, fermionic condensates, photonic matter, and possibly even supersolids — just to name a few. Liquid, solid, and gas are just the states you can observe in everyday life. Plasma, which some people learned about as the state of matter for lightning, is the most abundant form of matter in the universe. Myth: Atoms, the building blocks of matter, can be broken down only into electrons, protons, and neutrons. Matter gets much smaller and more complex than that. Quantum physics predicts 18 types of elementary particles, 16 of which have been detected by experiments. Protons and neutrons are made up of quarks, which are held together by gluons. Dave Mosher and Aylin Woodward contributed reporting to this post. This article has been updated to include new information. It was originally published on September 19, 2019. An earlier version of this story incorrectly stated that Eris is larger than Pluto.
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New fossil evidence suggests the Neanderthal practice of collecting eagle talons, which were likely worn as jewellery or used to create powerful symbols, was more extensive than previously thought.Remarkably, the dating of these artefacts suggests modern humans might have copied this practice.Evidence presented today in Science Advances bolsters a theory that suggests Neanderthals used eagle talons as symbolic decorations, which they may have worn as necklaces, earrings, or other forms of personal adornment.Evidence of this practice among Neanderthals has been found elsewhere, but the new find – a lone eagle toe bone pulled from Spain's Foradada Cave – is the first to be found in the Iberian Peninsula.What’s more, at 39,000 years old, it’s possibly the most “modern” known example of talon use among the Neanderthals, appearing just before they went extinct.That said, another anthropologist says it’s unclear if these particular Neanderthals used eagle talons for symbolic or decorative reasons, and that more supporting evidence is needed.
Indeed, the ability to conjure flame still seems borderline magical to me – so imagine what the capacity to start a fire from scratch must have meant to early humans.At some point, our ancestors harnessed the power of the flame to keep warm, cook food, produce new materials, shoo away predators and illuminate dark caves.Archaeological evidence suggests hominins of various types were using fire as far back as 1.5 million years ago, but no one really knows how they acquired that fire.This paradigm-shifting ability – to both intentionally start and control fire – is known as pyrotechnology, and it’s traditionally thought to be the exclusive domain of our species, Homo sapiens.But as new evidence presented this week in Scientific Reports suggests, Neanderthals did possess the capacity to start their own fires.That said, competing evidence from France has linked Neanderthal fire use to warmer periods, when forests are dense with flammable material and when the odds of lightning strikes are higher – important factors for determining the likelihood of wildfires.
A comprehensive analysis of DNA from modern Melanesian people suggests an assortment of mutated genes inherited from extinct Neanderthals and Denisovans provided evolutionary advantages, such as the ability to consume new foods and avoid infections, among other important benefits.Neanderthals and Denisovans went extinct some 35,000 to 40,000 years ago, but not before these closely related hominins interbred with modern humans.To this very day, the legacy of these interbreeding episodes live on in our DNA – at least among humans of European and Asian descent.New research published today in Science dives into these unknowns, uncovering new evidence suggesting some of these inherited genes – at least among modern Melanesians – conferred certain evolutionary benefits, the exact nature of which still needs to be determined.“Our study demonstrates that previously unknown large genomic structural changes that originated in our now-extinct close relatives – and were subsequently introgressed or introduced back to our genome – play important roles in human evolution,” explained PingHsun Hsieh, a geneticist from the Department of Genome Sciences at the University of Washington in Seattle and the lead researcher of the new paper, in an email to Gizmodo.“We also identify new genes encompassed within these large genomic variants that might be beneficial to Melanesians and help them adapt to their local island environments.”
Whether by crudely fashioned seafaring boats or foot-trekked Aegean coastal routes, Neanderthals and early humans somehow managed to get to the Greek island of Naxos tens of thousands of years earlier than previously thought.That means humans have been enjoying the exquisite beauty of the Meditteranean for about 200,000 years, according to findings released Thursday by an international research team.The research, published in the journal Science Advances after years of excavation by scientists from McMaster University, challenge current theories on Stone Age migration across Europe."Until recently, this part of the world was seen as irrelevant to early human studies, but the results force us to completely rethink the history of the Mediterranean islands," said lead author and associate anthropology professor Tristan Carter in a university release.Until now, scholars largely thought the Aegean Sea impassable to Neanderthals and early hominids, and believed Mediterranean islands to only have been settled for about 9,000 years.Stone Age hunters, meanwhile, are known to have been on mainland Europe for more than 1 million years.
Jet lag could be a thing of the past, Neanderthals may have been smarter than we thought, and the feds took down a massive child-porn site on the dark web.Here's the news you need to know, in two minutes or less.Want to receive this two-minute roundup as an email every weekday?This app will help reset your clockJet lag feels impossible to avoid, but thanks to new research and technologies, you might be able to conquer it.Tap your flight details into the Timeshifter app and it will notify you about things like when you should see bright light, and when you should avoid caffeine or try to nap.
At Qesem Cave in Israel, Neanderthals or early Homo sapiens appear to have stored marrow-rich deer bones for several weeks, relying on the bones and their outer layer of dried skin and flesh to keep the marrow relatively fresh—like storing leftovers in Pleistocene Tupperware.Based on the cut marks on the bones, people extracted the marrow after a few weeks, after the bones and their covering of skin and tendons had time to dry out.That suggests the people who lived at Qesem were planning ahead for their future needs—which is one more piece of evidence that Neanderthals and the earliest members of our own species were smarter than we’ve often given them credit for.People of various groups have lived at Qesem Cave off and on for hundreds of thousands of years.Archaeologists haven’t found hominin fossils at the site so far, but in the oldest layers of artifacts, they’ve unearthed oval and pear-shaped hand axes in the Acheulian style—a stone calling card of Homo erectus or their descendants, Homo heidelbergensis.In layers dating from 300,000 to 200,000 years old, the stone blades and scrapers belong to a set of stone tool cultures called the Acheulo-Yabrudian, which has turned up at Neanderthal and early Homo sapiens sites.
“Basically, the story that we are telling is full of shit,” said Mike Morley, an archaeologist at Flinders University and the lead author of the new study, in an email to Gizmodo.Well, to be fair to Morley and his colleagues, their story is also full of charcoal fragments, ash, bits of bone, and flakes from stone tools – all of which were dredged from 3 to 4 metres (9 to 13 feet) of sediment at the bottom of two chambers in Denisova Cave.By performing a micromorphological analysis of all the stuff embedded within this dirt – both geological and biological – the researchers were able to reconstruct a history of habitation in the cave over the course of 300,000 years, a timespan that included no less than three interglacial cycles.Genetic evidence from 2018 suggests the two groups cohabited and co-mingled in the cave, as evidenced by the discovery of a half-Denisovan, half-Neanderthal individual.The new research corroborates the previous work done in Denisova Cave, but it also helps to fill in some unknown gaps, showing that archaic humans were not present in the cave for significant swaths of time.“We already knew from the fossil bone record that other animals were present in the cave, but it was a surprise just how much hyena – and to a lesser extent, wolf – poop there would be in the sediment record,” said Morley.
New research has revealed a Denisovan finger bone that’s unexpectedly human-like in shape – an odd observation, given the close relation of Denisovans to Neanderthals, whose fingers differed quite a bit from ours.To date, only five skeletal fossils are known from Denisovans: three molars, a mandible, and the tip of a pinky finger.That’s not much to go by, but the 50,000-year-old finger bone – discovered 11 years ago in Siberia’s Denisova Cave – yielded critically important genetic information.The research, led by E. Andrew Bennett from Paris Diderot University, revealed a finger that’s closer in shape to those of anatomically modern humans (Homo sapiens) than to those of Neanderthals – a surprise, given how closely related Denisovans are to Neanderthals.Fascinatingly, this finding doesn’t mean modern humans looked like Denisovans.Genetic evidence suggests modern humans interbred with Denisovans (and also Neanderthals), and that Neanderthals interbred with Denisovans.
Humans today are mosaics, our genomes rich tapestries of interwoven ancestries.With every fossil discovered, with every DNA analysis performed, the story gets more complex: We, the sole survivors of the genus Homo, harbor genetic fragments from other closely related but long-extinct lineages.Modern humans are the products of a sprawling history of shifts and dispersals, separations and reunions—a history characterized by far more diversity, movement and mixture than seemed imaginable a mere decade ago.Original story reprinted with permission from Quanta Magazine, an editorially independent publication of the Simons Foundation whose mission is to enhance public understanding of science by covering research developments and trends in mathematics and the physical and life sciences.But it’s one thing to say that Neanderthals interbred with the ancestors of modern Europeans, or that the recently discovered Denisovans interbred with some older mystery group, or that they all interbred with each other.“We’ve got this picture where these events are happening all over the place,” said Aylwyn Scally, an evolutionary geneticist at the University of Cambridge.
Scientists have successfully grown mini brains that, for the first time, produce brain waves resembling those seen in embryos and preterm infants.Researchers at the University of California, San Diego (UCSD) created the pea-sized "brains" by growing up stem cells in a petri dish and testing their activity and gene expression over 10 months.The study, published in the journal Cell Stem Cell on Thursday, is by the same research group that previously showed they were able to grow Neanderthal mini brains in the lab.This time around they've stuck to Homo sapiens coaxing human stem cells into becoming brain cells by placing them in a petri dish that simulates the environment of early brain development.The 3D mini brains, known as "organoids," then mature and create cellular networks of connected cells -- an important component of real brains that allows electrical signals to zip around."We are one step closer to have a model that can actually generate these early stages of a sophisticated neural network," said Alysson Muotri, a molecular biologist at UCSD and author on the new study, in a press release.
Washington University paleoanthropologist Erik Trinkaus and his colleagues studied fossils, digital scans, photographs, and other archaeologists' reports from 77 Neanderthals and Homo sapiens who lived in Europe and Asia during the Pleistocene.Based on this sampling of remains with preserved inner ear bones, a surprising number of Neanderthals were running around Pleistocene Eurasia with swimmer's ear.Lifestyles of the cold, damp, and windyYou won't get swimmer's ear from a single cold-water surfing trip.If you're looking at a skeleton, swimmer's ear is the kind of trait that can tell you something about a person's habits in life.And they were more likely to develop severe cases, with bony growths large enough to mostly block the ear canal, as in the elderly Neanderthal now known to us only as Shanidar I.
The pain-relieving effect of salicylic acid, now sold as Aspirin, has been known for thousands of years.Besides being a useful drug with numerous health applications, it is a stress hormone made by plants which is essential in enabling them to fight off damaging pathogens.Their results were published in Science.As far back as Neanderthal times, bark containing salicylic acid was chewed to self-medicate; the first chemical extraction was in the 1820s, and an improved version has been marketed as Aspirin for over 120 years.But no-one understood how plants actually made it.Then, 20 years ago researchers using the plant Arabidopsis thaliana discovered the first gene involved in salicylic acid synthesis.
A Pictish man with a rugged face who was brutally murdered 1,400 years ago may have been royalty, new research finds.After his murder, the approximately 30-year-old man's remains sat undisturbed in a cave on the Black Isle of the Scottish Highlands for more than a millennia.Archaeologists found the man's skeleton in a strange position; rocks pinned down his arms and legs, his skull was fractured, and his legs were crossed.Forensic artists published a virtual reconstruction of his face in 2017, catapulting him into internet fame.Now, a new analysis indicates that this fellow, known as Rosemarkie Man, was likely a prominent person in his community, perhaps a member of royalty or a chieftain, according to news sources.[Photos: See the Ancient Faces of a Man-Bun-Wearing Bloke and a Neanderthal Woman]
It’s the earliest indication of our species on the continent, but the lack of supporting archaeological evidence raises some questions.The human fragment, dubbed Apidima 1, is just the back of the skull and was dated to 210,000 years ago, making it the oldest evidence of modern humans in Eurasia.Our species emerged in Africa around 100,000 years prior, with the earliest evidence of our species dating back to the Jebel Irhoud site in Morocco and the remarkable discovery of 315,000-year-old human fossils.Moreover, the earliest prior evidence of modern humans outside of Africa was discovered in Israel’s Misliya Cave – a partial jawbone dated to between 175,000 and 200,000 years ago.Regardless, this interpretation suggests a complicated migration scenario for early modern humans, as this is potential evidence of multiple dispersals from Africa, rather than one major exodus.“These results suggest that two late Middle Pleistocene human groups were present at this site – an early Homo sapiens population, followed by a Neanderthal population,” wrote the authors in the new study.
Modern humans emerged about 300,000 years ago in Africa.But anthropologists have found a 210,000-year-old Homo sapien skull in a Greek cave: the oldest modern human ever found in Eurasia.The discovery indicates that some humans left Africa far earlier than researchers previously thought and spread far wider.A study published today in the journal Nature revealed that the skull, which was originally discovered in Greece in the 1970s, belonged to a member of an early population of Homo sapiens and is about 210,000 years old.It predates what researchers previously considered to be the earliest evidence of Homo sapiens in Europe by more than 160,000 years.A tale of 2 skulls