The illustration below shows a hot, dense, expanding cloud of debris stripped away from neutron stars just before they collide. The collision between two neutron stars or a neutron star and a black hole is known as a kilonova. NASA’s illustration of a kilonova shows the cloud in both visible and infrared light. Inside the collision’s neutron-rich debris, large quantities … Continue reading
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my name is Rich Levinson, and the reason I am developing this web site is to follow up on the work I did on X-ray pulsars between 1971 and 1973.That work included making the discoveries that both Cen X-3 and Her X-1 are members of close binary systems and their x-rays are fueled by interacting with the atmospheres of their respective companions.This web site is dedicated to exploring the implications of this logic, which may possibly lead us to a whole new conceptualization for understanding the observations of the many branches of astrophysics.It is also essential to mention that in the years that followed the initial 1974 discovery, Betsy, Rob, and our other two children, Peter and Hillary have encouraged me to keep this theory alive, and so, as a result, the Neutron Star Capture Theory is now ready to be introduced to all who may be interested.Rich Levinson 
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So you like TNW? Then join our upcoming online event, TNW2020, you don’t want to miss it. Neutron star collisions were thought to make much of the gold in the Universe, but something else is making a lot of the precious metal… In 2017, astronomers witnessed a collision between two neutron stars — the ultradense corpses of massive stars. The analysis seemed to reveal the formation of all elements heavier than iron — including gold — are forged in these titanic collisions. A new study shows these collisions can not deliver anywhere near enough gold to account for the concentrations… This story continues at The Next Web
It would be the youngest neutron star known to date.
'Just totally unheard of and really mind-boggling' says MIT assistant prof High-energy X-rays emanating from a gigantic black hole rapidly petered out before it roared back to life again, leaving astronomers bewildered.…
Researchers with Ohio State University have published a new study detailing the potential existence of a new class of black holes, ones that are smaller than what are currently known to be the smallest black holes in the universe.The discovery of a new class would help astronomers in their mission to find and catalog black holes, ultimately improving our understanding of the universe around us.Black holes are the ‘hungry’ result of dead stars, which eventually pull into themselves and then explode.These black holes have insane gravitational pulls on everything around them, tearing apart planets that get too close and more.Most black holes have around five to 15 times the mass of our Sun, but recent discoveries have put the figure as high as 31.The discovery proved that black holes can be bigger than previously known and the new study suggests it is possible there may also be a class of extra-small, relatively speaking, black holes, as well.
The 'massive unseen companion' is still a mysteryAstrophysicists may have discovered the smallest black hole yet – just 3.3 times the mass of our Sun – according to a new paper published in Science.The object, described as a “massive unseen companion,” is locked in a binary system with a giant star codenamed 2MASS J05215658+4359220.The results hinted that the star was paired up what could be a low-mass black hole.“What we’ve done here is come up with a new way to search for black holes, but we’ve also potentially identified one of the first of a new class of low-mass black holes that astronomers hadn’t previously known about,” said Todd Thompson, lead author of the study and an astronomy professor at Ohio State Uni in America.“The masses of things tell us about their formation and evolution, and they tell us about their nature.”
First time heavy elements spotted in neutron star collisionFor the first time astroboffins have discovered strontium, a heavy element nestled near the bottom left hand side of the periodic table, being manufactured in space by the collision of two neutron stars.The findings, reported in a paper in Nature on Wednesday, are a vital piece of the puzzle to understanding how elements heavier than iron are forged in the universe.“This is the final stage of a decades-long chase to pin down the origin of the elements,” said Darach Watson, first author of the paper and an associate professor at the University of Copenhagen in Denmark.It’s well known that elements are produced in the cores of hot stars.As atomic nuclei larger than hydrogen and helium fuse together under the heat, heavier elements are made.
Scientists say they've found a spinning neutron star, or pulsar, that is so densely compacted, it might be right on the limit of what's possible.It could exist precariously at the tipping point where any more pressure would cause it to collapse completely and form a new black hole.A team of astronomers using the Green Bank Telescope in West Virginia found that the rapidly rotating pulsar, called J0740+6620, is the most massive neutron star ever measured."Neutron stars have this tipping point where their interior densities get so extreme that the force of gravity overwhelms even the ability of neutrons to resist further collapse," said Scott Ransom, an astronomer at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) and co-author of a paper publishing Monday in Nature Astronomy."Each 'most massive' neutron star we find brings us closer to identifying that tipping point and helping us to understand the physics of matter at these mind-boggling densities."To begin to imagine the density, picture our sun, which has 333,000 times as much mass as the Earth.
Nearly 700,000 times heavier than Earth.A team of researchers has discovered the "most massive neutron star ever measured," one that is considered "almost too massive to exist."The star, known as J0740+6620, is approximately 4,600 light-years from Earth and is only 5 miles across, a measurement that "approaches the limits of how massive and compact a single object can become without crushing itself down into a black hole.""Neutron stars are as mysterious as they are fascinating," said Thankful Cromartie, a graduate student at the University of Virginia, in a statement."These city-sized objects are essentially ginormous atomic nuclei.They are so massive that their interiors take on weird properties.
Mergers of this magnitude are so violent they rattle the fabric of space-time, releasing gravitational waves that spread through the cosmos like ripples on a pond.These mergers also fuel cataclysmic explosions that create heavy metals in an instant, showering their galactic neighborhood in hundreds of planets' worth of gold and platinum, the authors of the new study said in a statement.(Some scientists suspect that all the gold and platinum on Earth formed in explosions like these, thanks to ancient neutron-star mergers close to our galaxy.)Astronomers at the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) got concrete proof that such mergers occur when they detected gravitational waves pulsing out of a stellar crash site for the first time in 2017.Unfortunately, those observations began only about 12 hours after the initial collision, leaving an incomplete picture of what kilonovas look like.For their new study, an international team of scientists compared the partial dataset from the 2017 merger with more complete observations of a suspected kilonova that occurred in 2016 and was observed by multiple space telescopes.
The Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO) famously detects gravitational waves by looking at the collisions of black holes.It also looks at collisions of other cosmic bodies, such as when it detected the first observed merger between two neutron stars in 2017.Now, a team of astronomers has looked back at older data to observe what happens during these epic impacts.The merging of the neutron stars gives off massive bursts of gamma rays and electromagnetic radiation, but the process isn’t purely destructive.It also creates, by forging heavy metals like platinum and gold.In fact, a kilonova forms several planets’ worth of heavy metals in one swoop, and it is believed that this is how the gold on Earth was created.
The catastrophic collision nearly a billion years ago sent ripples in space-time, the gravitational waves that Einstein predicted.They passed through Earth this month.Nearly a billion years ago, a black hole appears to have eaten a dead star — "like Pac-Man," according to Susan Scott, a physicist at the Australian National University.Such disturbances were first theorized by Albert Einstein, who predicted in 1915 that accelerating massive objects, like neutron stars or black holes, would create "waves" in the fabric of space and time.The first observations of gravitational waves, however, didn't come until 2015, 100 years later.More research is still needed to confirm the results, but researchers say there's a good chance the signals came from the collision of a black hole and neutron star, the super-dense remnant of a star.
The true identity of last week’s purported neutron star-black hole merger may never be known, as follow-up searches for a source of the signal have turned up nothing.“We are not aware of any black holes in the Universe with masses less than about five solar masses,” Susan Scott, professor at the Australian National University, told Gizmodo in an email.“Since we currently estimate the smaller mass to be less than three solar masses, if it is a black hole, then it would be significantly lighter than any other black hole that we know about.”On 14 August, scientists operating the two Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory’s two machines, as well as the Virgo gravitational wave interferometer, all reported spotting gravitational waves.The detectors determined that this event, now named S190814bv, was highly unlikely to be a false alarm.The astrophysicists calculated that the gravitational waves they detected would have been created by two masses, one larger than five times the mass of the Sun and one smaller than three times the mass of the Sun, colliding nearly 900 million light-years away.
When two neutron stars collide, the matter at their core enters extreme states.The HADES long-term experiment, involving more than 110 scientists, has been investigating forms of cosmic matter since 1994.With the investigation of electromagnetic radiation arising when stars collide, the team has now focused attention on the hot, dense interaction zone between two merging neutron stars.According to estimates, none has ever happened in our galaxy, the Milky Way.This enabled the HADES team to simulate the conditions in merging stars at the microscopic level in the heavy ion accelerator at the Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung (GSI) in Darmstadt.As in a neutron star collision, when two heavy ions are slammed together at close to the speed of light, electromagnetic radiation is produced.
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Astronomers watching the cosmos for faint ripples in space-time may have detected a black hole swallowing up a neutron star for the very first time.Gravitational wave observatories in the US and Europe were switched back on after upgrades in April to hunt for these extreme cosmic events, and since then have detected 23 potential cosmic wobbles.The latest is perhaps the most exciting yet -- and it's also potentially the most puzzling.The event, designated S190814bv, was detected on Aug. 14 by the finely-tuned lasers of the twin LIGO detectors in the US and the Virgo detector in Italy.The facilities picked up ripples in the fabric of the universe and have, tentatively, suggested they resulted from a collision between a black hole and a small, dense star known as a "neutron star".Since switching back on in April, only three candidates for this insane type of cosmic collision have been presented with varying levels of confidence.
Data from NASA’s Spitzer Space Telescope has given scientists a first glimpse into conditions on the surface of a rocky exoplanet beyond the solar system.Planet LHS 3844b is located 48.6 light-years from Earth and has a radius 1.3 times that of Earth, according to NASA.The exoplanet, which is orbiting a small star called an M dwarf, was first spotted by NASA’s Transiting Exoplanet Satellite Survey (TESS) in 2018.BLACK HOLE DEVOURING A NEUTRON STAR CAUSED RIPPLES IN SPACE AND TIME, SCIENTISTS SAYNew research indicates that the mysterious planet’s surface may resemble Earth’s Moon or Mercury, NASA said in a statement released Monday.“The planet likely has little to no atmosphere and could be covered in the same cooled volcanic material found in the dark areas of the Moon's surface, called mare,” it explained.
A black hole swallowing a neutron star has likely been detected for the first time, according to scientists.The Australian National University (ANU), which participated in the research, explains that the “cataclysmic event” was detected on Aug. 14, 2019, by gravitational-wave discovery machines in the U.S. and Italy.The machines detected ripples in space and time from an event that happened about 8,550 million trillion kilometers away from Earth, ANU said in a statement.“Neutron stars and black holes are the super-dense remains of dead stars,” it explained, noting that scientists are still studying the data to work out the size of the two objects.FIRST-EVER BLACK HOLE IMAGE REVEALED"About 900 million years ago, this black hole ate a very dense star, known as a neutron star, like Pac-man -- possibly snuffing out the star instantly," said Professor Susan Scott, leader of the General Relativity Theory and Data Analysis Group at ANU and a chief investigator with the Australian Research Council's Centre of Excellence for Gravitational Wave Discovery (OzGrav), in the statement.
Nature isn't perfect either, ehNeutron stars rotate rapidly, emitting pulses of electromagnetic energy at regular intervals.Sometimes, the flashes fluctuate, however, speeding up and then slowing down suddenly for several seconds, leaving scientists puzzled.The odd behavior known as a “glitch,” is best observed in the Vela Pulsar, a neutron star located 1,000 light years away.A group of scientists - led by a team from the Australian University of Monash - pored over data taken from a glitch event in 2016 using data from the Mount Pleasant Radio Observatory in Tasmania.They discovered that the star’s rotational frequency increased by about 16 microhertz, a tiny amount, over 30 seconds or so, according to a paper published in Nature Astronomy on Monday.
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