US law enforcement and other authorities used force while intervening in nearly 400 Black Lives Matter protests since police killed George Floyd in May, according to new data that paints the clearest portrait yet of the historic unrest that’s swept across the country this summer.Figures from the US Crisis Monitor offer a bleak forecast of escalating political violence heading into a contentious election. While most of the protests have been non-violent, police or other authorities intervened in about 725 Black Lives Matter protests in the US between May 24 and August 22, sometimes using force – including tear gas, rubber bullets, or beating demonstrators with batons, data shows. There were also over 100 instances of government violence directed against the media during this period. We’re seeing increased proliferation of groups like militias that are taking up arms, some of whom are becoming violent.Dr. Roudabeh KishiOn top of that, the Crisis Monitor – a joint effort of the Armed Conflict Location & Event Data Project (ACLED), a nongovernmental organisation, and the Bridging Divides Initiative at Princeton University – identified over 100 instances of non-state actors, including at least 20 distinct far-right militia groups, intervening in Black Lives Matter demonstrations, sometimes violently, since May 24.There were also dozens of cases of individual perpetrators, some linked to white supremacist groups like the KKK, driving vehicles into Black Lives Matter demonstrators.And things could get worse.“I think we have all of the pieces at hand to make a perfect storm, so to speak, as we march closer and closer to the election,” said Dr. Roudabeh Kishi, the director of research and innovation for ACLED’s US Crisis Monitor.There were nearly 11,000 demonstrations in the US between May 24 and August 22 – accompanied by terrifying instances of state repression, including the violent removal of protesters outside the White House to make room for a presidential photo-op, and the abduction of protesters by federal agents into unmarked vans driving around Portland, Oregon. There have also been increasing instances of far-right vigilantes confronting left-wing protesters.In the past week, three people have been shot and killed at demonstrations. Last Tuesday in Kenosha, Wisconsin, a 17-year-old, marching with a local group of armed vigilantes, allegedly shot and killed two anti-racist protesters and severely injured another. On Saturday, a member of the far-right group Patriot Prayer, which is known for violently attacking leftists in the northwestern US, was shot and killed during a pro-Trump demonstration in Portland.“We’re seeing increased violence, like in the streets, within demonstrations. We’re seeing increased heavy-handedness by the state,” Kishi told HuffPost. “We’re seeing increased proliferation of groups like militias that are taking up arms, some of whom are becoming violent, like we just saw in Kenosha.”There’s been a sharp increase in the state cracking down on protests when compared to last year, Kishi said.In July 2019, when the US was experiencing a wave of unrest over the horrific abuses of immigrants at government detention camps, police or government forces only intervened in about 2% of demonstrations, Kishi said. This July, those forces clamped down on 9% of protests. Kishi said these trends, combined with hostile rhetoric from the White House and the way social media platforms allow extremists to mobilise, make her very worried about the coming months. Right-wing groups have organised about 360 demonstrations in opposition to Black Lives Matter, often under the banner of “Blue Lives Matter.” Some demonstrations were also organised in support of Trump or Confederate statues. All told, according to ACLED’s data, over 40 of those right-wing demonstrations have resulted in violence since May. This adds to recent findings from the Centre for Analysis of the Radical Right, which identified nearly 500 incidents of vigilantes or far-right activists confronting Black Lives Matter demonstrators since May. Those incidents include 64 cases of simple assault, 38 cases of vigilantes driving cars into demonstrators, and nine times that shots were fired at protesters.At least six left-wing protesters have been shot during the demonstrations, three of whom died.The president, meanwhile, has attempted to make “law and order” a central pillar of his re-election campaign, in part by signalling his opposition to the nationwide protests.On Sunday, Trump lashed out against “antifa” and Portland Mayor Ted Wheeler.“The people of Portland won’t put up with no safety any longer,” Trump tweeted. “The Mayor is a FOOL. Bring in the National Guard!”On Monday, White House press secretary Kayleigh McEnany refused to say whether the president would condemn the killing of two protesters in Kenosha. It’s this type of messaging from the White House, in support of state repression of protests and tacit tolerance of far-right vigilantes, that has Kishi and the team at ACLED so worried.“I think as you’re closer to November, this hyperpolarisation is kind of coming to a front,” Kishi said.The weeks immediately before and after the election could be particularly fraught, Kishi warned, pointing to the possibility of widespread voter suppression and growing uncertainty about whether Americans will accept the election’s results.The US Crisis Monitor hopes to be around to track the political unrest come November. Funding for the project is set to dry up in a matter of weeks, but Kishi and her team are pursuing more funding to continue their work.
At the tail end of last month, Razer announced plans to produce a left-handed variant of its Naga gaming mouse.Finding gaming mice dedicated to the lefties of the world can be a challenge sometimes, and that’s especially true if you’re looking for a mouse with a large number of hotkeys like the Naga.However, Razer makes it clear that creating a mouse for a low-demand market – underserved though it may be – is a costly endeavor, so it’s asking those interested in buying one to pre-register for the device.“Thanks to our group of passionate left-handed gamers, we have started work on the Razer Naga: Left-Handed Edition,” Razer says on its campaign site.“However, there’s still a lot more work to be done and we want to hear from the many others who not only want, but need the device.Share our community clip and help us continue the Razer Naga: Left-Handed Edition.
The MIT team found that coating nanoparticles with the right-handed form of the amino acid cysteine helped the particles to avoid being destroyed by enzymes in the body.This finding could help researchers to design more effective carriers for drugs to treat cancer and other diseases, says Robert Langer, the David H. Koch Institute Professor at MIT and a member of the Koch Institute for Integrative Cancer Research.Ana Jaklenec, a research scientist at the Koch Institute, is also a senior author of the paper, which appears in Advanced Materials on Nov. 4.Other authors of the paper are former MIT postdocs Pedro Guimaraes and Kevin McHugh, MIT postdoc Quanyin Hu, and Koch Institute research affiliate Michael Mitchell.For example, naturally occurring amino acids are always "L" enantiomers, while DNA and glucose are usually "D.""Chirality is ubiquitous in nature, imparting uniqueness and specificity to the biological and chemical properties of materials," Yeom says.
Tokyo, Japan - A research team at The University of Tokyo has reproducibly synthesized staircase-like supramolecules of a single handedness, or chirality, using standard laboratory equipment.By gradually removing the solvent from a rotating solution containing non-chiral precursors, they were able to produce helixes that twist preferentially in a particular direction.This research may lead to new and cheaper drug production methods, as well as finally addressing one of the lingering quandaries about how life began.One of the most striking features of the molecules most important to life--including DNA, proteins, and sugars--is that they have a "handedness," referred to as chirality.It becomes even more puzzling when you consider that chiral pairs behave identically chemically.One hypothesis is that some early imbalance broke the symmetry between left- and right-handed molecules, and this change was "locked in" over evolutionary time.
If solving a Rubik's Cube wasn't hard enough already, you can now test your skills against the dextrous new artificial intelligence system created by Open AI.In an 18-second video posted to the company's Twitter account Tuesday, Open AI's new robot masters the cube quickly with a single, human-like robotic hand."This is an unprecedented level of dexterity for a robot, and is hard even for humans to do," OpenAI tweeted Tuesday.Earlier this year, researchers at the University of California, Irvine unveiled an AI algorithm (sans robot arm) that can analyze more than 10 billion possible combinations to solve a Rubik's cube in just over a second.Open AI's robot still hasn't perfected its technique, though.It only solves the cube 60% of the time, according to the company's blog.
The nanostructures from Katja Höflich's HZB team are shaped like corkscrews and made of silver.Mathematically, such a nano antenna can be regarded as an one-dimensional line that forms a helix, characterized by parameters such as diameter, length, number of turns per unit length, and handedness.The nano corkscrews are highly sensitive to light: depending on frequency and polarisation, they can strongly enhance it.This results in novel applications in information technology based on the spin quantum number of light.Usually, the interaction of such nano-antennas with an electromagnetic field is determined using numerical methods.Each helix geometry, however, requires a new numerically expensive calculation.
Kanazawa, Japan - The concept of chirality can be challenging for the layperson, with "chemical handedness" seeming a very minor distinction.However, as the consequences of the notorious thalidomide disaster illustrate, understanding chiral materials is a major concern.A team involving researchers from Kanazawa University has reported a three-state switchable chiral stationary phase (CSP) that provides new opportunities in chiral separation.Chiral high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) remains the most effective method for separating chiral molecules.HPLC involves running samples through a tube--known as a column--containing chiral material (the CSP) that can differentiate between pairs of chiral molecules (enantiomers).The researchers report a CSP based on a helical polymer material containing a chiral pendant group that causes the polymer to adopt different conformations in response to metal ions.
Physicists from Nanyang Technological University, Singapore (NTU Singapore) and the Niels Bohr Institute in Copenhagen, Denmark, have devised a method to turn a non-magnetic metal into a magnet using laser light.Magnets and their magnetic field are typically produced by circulating currents, like those found in everyday electromagnetic coils.The scientists theorise that when non-magnetic metallic disks are illuminated by linearly polarised light - light that does not possess any handedness of its own - circulating electric currents and hence magnetism can spontaneously emerge in the disk.The new theory by Assistant Professor Justin Song from NTU's School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences and Associate Professor Mark Rudner from Niels Bohr Institute, was published in the scientific journal Nature Physics earlier this month.Prof Song said that their scheme is an example of how novel strong light-matter interactions could be used to create material properties "on-demand".If realised experimentally, this would open up a wide variety of potential applications across a range of high quality plasmonic materials such as graphene.
To start, if you’ve got small to average-sized hands, a smaller mouse will be more comfortable and less fatiguing to use.If you’re a traveling or work remotely and would like to get through your busy workload at a shared workspace, having a compact mouse to effortlessly stash in your messenger bag or backpack is convenient.We scoured the streets (and cyberspace) to find the best small mice you must consider for your next peripheral purchase, some of which are best for productivity, some are excellent gaming mice, all under five inches in length.And, if you’ve struck out so far in your search for the best small mouse for you, worry not.And, while we haven't had a chance to test every single mouse on this list, we used our mouse expertise to find some smaller mice that should absolutely satisfy your needs.DPI: up to 12000 | Interface: USB | Buttons: 7 | Ergonomics: Right-handed | Dimensions: 3.09 x 4.65 x 1.16 in (78.49 x 116.8 x 29.46 mm)
You know how it is.You need to get some files off your thumb drive so you go to plug it into your PC and … nope … it ain’t going in.So you flip it around and fiddle and fumble to find the port again and … nope … it still ain’t going in.So you flip it around again and … what the … somehow it still refuses to slot in as it surely should.The final stage of the process usually involves a thorough visual inspection of the USB drive before craning your neck to a potentially vertebrae-shattering position in a bid to ensure the perfectly aligned insertion of stick into slot.Or getting up out of your seat to approach the problem from another angle entirely, and with all the steady-handedness of a crack surgeon carrying out a life-saving operation.
For the first few years of its existence, Genius (formerly Rap Genius) featured annotated song lyrics on its platform without permission of music publishers.Now Genius is accusing Google of stealing its content without permission.In May 2014, Genius finally made a licensing agreement with music publishers following months of criticism from the National Music Publishers Association trade group.But since then, the company has become more concerned with how others are using their content.On Sunday, the Wall Street Journal reported that Genius accused Google of pulling lyrics from Genius.com and publishing the content on its platform.“Google knowingly displays lyrics that are copied from Genius in search results in order to keep users from leaving Google to go to other sites,” Genius chief strategy officer Ben Gross told Gizmodo, in a statement.
Genius is probably one of the most popular lyrics websites around, but it says Google is stealing more than just traffic with the search giant’s own lyrics functionality.The lyrics website told the Wall Street Journal that Google has been using lyrics directly from Genius.com.Furthermore, the website reportedly alerted Google to the infractions in 2017 and again in April.“Over the last two years, we’ve shown Google irrefutable evidence again and again that they are displaying lyrics copied from Genius,” a website representative told the outlet.That “irrefutable evidence” is embedded in the lyrics, as Genius uses a specific pattern of straight and curly apostrophes in them.When converted to morse code, the pattern spells “red handed.” It claims that it found over 100 examples of stolen lyrics via this method.
"Studying individual differences in gender and sexual orientation provides insight into how early-life biology shapes the brain and behaviour," says the developmental psychology researcher.VanderLaan's study assessed whether biomarkers--markers of early-life biological processes--work in conjunction with each other to contribute to male same-sex sexual orientation or influence sexual orientation independently of one another.But our study considers whether there is some interaction or association between these influences," says VanderLaan.The biomarkers VanderLaan examined included participants' number of older brothers, rate of left- versus right-handedness, and the presence of gay and/or bisexual male relatives in their families.VanderLaan's group used latent profile analysis (LPA), a statistical technique, to help identify whether these biomarkers cluster together in the same individuals or are present in only particular subgroups of men.The study found evidence for at least four different subgroups: men with elevated numbers of older brothers, men with a greater degree of non-right-handedness, men with elevated gay and/or bisexual male relatives, and men with low levels of these biomarkers.
Matthew Marre was indicted [PDF] and arrested last month for allegedly obtaining "confidential phone record information ... by making false and fraudulent statements and representations" when he called a hotline run by the different mobile networks, and asked for the GPS location of specific cellphones – all of which belonged to people that were wanted for skipping bail.What is remarkable is that Marre was seemingly able to get the information at all.The police are required to follow a "legal court process compelling the companies to assist law enforcement" i.e.When Marre was interviewed following the bush-tracking incident, he told a police officer that he was the owner of "Colorado PSC LLC" and had been contracted by a bail bond company to track the man in question.We haven't been able to find a limited liability company called "Colorado PSC" but it is possible that Marre simply implied he was a police officer by saying he was from "Colorado PSC" and was given the information by the mobile operator.Either way, Marre was apparently able to get hold of information that should been restricted only to law enforcement officers in an emergency situation – and was able to do so repeatedly with three of the four mobile operators, suggesting at the very least that those companies have lax data protection systems in place.
The accounting firm you choose should be one that you feel comfortable dealing with.Whether you hire just one accountant or a company team of accountants, you, as the owner of a company or professional service should be assured of their competence and their efforts on your behalf.how far back can vat inspection goWhen comes to accountants they should know the law concerning business taxes and what best to do for your company's financial security.You may know little about accounting practices, but you are hiring a professional firm to work for you as extended employees and are the firm's client.You will be paying for your services from your extended business firm to do your taxes, handle legal tax matters and advising you on setting up your company's books, payroll and other accounting matters.Whether your company's accounting employees work from their own company headquarters or come to your company, they will act as advisers or does the actual accounting work itself.
This natural preference for one side versus the other is called handedness, and can be seen almost everywhere - from a glucose molecule whose atomic structure leans left, to a dog who shakes "hands" only with her right.Now a team of researchers led by Berkeley Lab has observed chirality for the first time in polar skyrmions - quasiparticles akin to tiny magnetic swirls - in a material with reversible electrical properties."What we discovered is just mind-boggling," said Ramamoorthy Ramesh, who holds appointments as a faculty senior scientist in Berkeley Lab's Materials Sciences Division and as the Purnendu Chatterjee Endowed Chair in Energy Technologies in Materials Science and Engineering and Physics at UC Berkeley.When the team of researchers - co-led by Ramesh and Lane Martin, a staff scientist in Berkeley Lab's Materials Sciences Division and a professor in Materials Science and Engineering at UC Berkeley - began this study in 2016, they had set out to find ways to control how heat moves through materials.So they fabricated a special crystal structure called a superlattice from alternating layers of lead titanate (an electrically polar material, whereby one end is positively charged and the opposite end is negatively charged) and strontium titanate (an insulator, or a material that doesn't conduct electric current).But once they took STEM (scanning transmission electron microscopy) measurements of the lead titanate/strontium titanate superlattice at the Molecular Foundry, a U.S. DOE Office of Science User Facility at Berkeley Lab that specializes in nanoscale science, they saw something strange that had nothing to do with heat: Bubble-like formations had cropped up all across the device.
Scientists have announced the observation of “CP violation in a D0 meson” at CERN, a discovery that will appear in physics textbooks for years to come.There’s also antimatter, which exists even here on Earth, but there’s much less of it.This new observation is important on its own, but it also takes physicists another step closer to explaining where all the antimatter has disappeared to.There are six kinds of quarks: the up, charm, and top quarks, which all have an electric charge of 2/3, and the down, strange, and bottom quarks, each with a charge of -1/3.These particles combine into the protons and neutrons that create atoms as well as a variety of other particles, like the D0 meson, a particle composed of a charm quark and an anti-up quark.The laws of physics do differ if parity alone is switched, but should remain the same if the charge and handedness are switched—this is called CP symmetry, and it basically says that physics behaves the same when you switch a particle with a mirror-image of its antiparticle.
New evidence suggests that they can host electrons moving like slowed down light and their collective behavior mimics magnetic monopoles.An international team of researchers has discovered that certain classes of crystals with an asymmetry like biological "handedness," known as chiral crystals, may harbor electrons that behave in unexpected ways."Before our work, quantum-level properties of electrons in chiral crystals were rarely studied," said M. Zahid Hasan, the Eugene Higgins Professor of Physics at Princeton University, who led the research.It manifests in everyday objects such as gloves, shoes, screws and multi-level parking garages.In 2016, Duncan Haldane, Princeton's Sherman Fairchild University Professor of Physics, won the Nobel Prize in Physics for his theories predicting the properties of topological materials.In an October 2018 article, Hasan's team proposed a theory that bridged the gap between the physical chirality of crystals and how electrons behave in those crystals, both quantum mechanically and according to the mathematical laws of topology.
Cryptocurrency exchange desk Coinbase has handed out a massive $30,000 bug bounty for a critical vulnerability in its systems.The flaw was logged on February 12 via Coinbase‘s vulnerability disclosure program on HackerOne.A Coinbase spokesperson confirmed to Hard Fork the vulnerability has since been fixed, but could not provide any further details about the issue in question.The vulnerability report is closed to the public, but considering the high bounty of $30,000, it seems the flaw was rather severe.Currently, Coinbase has a four-tier reward system based on the impact of the bug: $200 for low, $2,000 for medium, $15,000 for high, and $50,000 for critical impact.“In order to be deemed valid, a report must demonstrate a software vulnerability in a service provided by Coinbase that harms Coinbase or Coinbase customers,” the company’s bounty terms stipulate.
An international team that included Rice University materials scientist Edwin Thomas pried a new, fundamental detail from its bottom-up creation of several block copolymers, synthetic materials that naturally assemble themselves from small building blocks.They found the left or right chirality established by the smallest building blocks (monomers) of the polymer replicated itself as the microscopic material came together to form larger scale spiraling structures akin to those commonly found in nature -- for instance, in helical DNA -- and could enable the creation of materials with unique properties."From a properties standpoint, chirality is pretty big for optics," Thomas said.The discovery led by the Rice professor's experimental colleagues in Taiwan is the focus of a paper in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.Thomas and his team have spent years developing expertise in block copolymers, a class of metamaterials that can assemble themselves into many distinct patterns, including alternating layers.Thomas noted the importance of chirality in nature, especially in drug design, where a left-handed molecule can be a savior while the same molecule, but right-handed, is toxic.
HOUSTON - (Nov. 29, 2018) - Rice University researchers have discovered a fundamentally different form of light-matter interaction in their experiments with gold nanoparticles.They weren't looking for it, but students in the lab of Rice chemist Stephan Link found that exciting the microscopic particles just right produced a near-perfect modulation of the light they scatter.The discovery may become useful in the development of next-generation, ultrasmall optical components for computers and antennas.A paper about the research appears in the American Chemical Society journal ACS Nano.Plasmons are quasiparticles, collective excitations that move in waves on the surface of some metals when excited by light.The Rice researchers were studying pinwheel-like plasmonic structures of C-shaped gold nanoparticles to see how they responded to circularly polarized light and its rotating electric field, especially when the handedness, or the direction of rotation of the polarization, was reversed.
Exploring the mystery of the molecular handedness in nature, scientists have proposed a new experimental scheme to create custom-made mirror molecules for analysis.The technique can make ordinary molecules spin so fast that they lose their normal symmetry and shape and instead form mirrored versions of each other.The research team from DESY, Universität Hamburg and University College London around group leader Jochen Küpper describes the innovative method in the journal Physical Review Letters.The further exploration of handedness, or chirality (from the ancient Greek word for hand, "cheir"), does not only enhance insight in the workings of nature, but could also pave the way for new materials and methods."For unknown reasons, life as we know it on Earth almost exclusively prefers left-handed proteins, while the genome is organised as the famous right-handed double helix," explains Andrey Yachmenev, who lead this theoretical work in Küpper's group at the Center for Free-Electron Laser Science (CFEL)."For more than a century, researchers are unravelling the secrets of this handedness in nature, which does not only affect the living world: mirror versions of certain molecules alter chemical reactions and change the behaviour of materials."
In fact, they only represent about 10 per cent of the human population.But a study suggests that the reason lefties are in the minority isn't anything suspect — rather, it boils down to the fact that the human race cooperate more than they compete.A pair of researchers from Northwestern University have for the first time analysed real-world data to establish whether an existing hypothesis — that cooperation breeds same-handedness — is correct.Daniel M. Abrams, one of the researchers, explains to SciGuru:"The more social the animal — where cooperation is highly valued — the more the general population will trend toward one side.The most important factor for an efficient society is a high degree of cooperation.
These days there's so much TV content to consume it's impossible (and expensive) to get it all in one place.The police and rights holders are never too happy with them, and two more pirate-entrepreneurs have been jailed for selling 'Ooberstick' devices powered by Kodi.Ooberstick Ltd was directed by Glenn Burrows, from Norfolk, and designed to sell devices running a custom build of Kodi and various streaming add-ons.Together with a second company, Oober Media Ltd, Ooberstick was able to amass thousands of customers - so it was natural that the police would come knocking.Burrows and his associate Darren Wicks (from Wiltshire) were arrested way back on 13th December 2016, with sources telling TorrentFreak the 7.20am raid involved six police officers and a representative of Sky.Both were eventually released on bail, with Burrows claiming he thought his business was legal - something many people claim when they find themselves in a similar situation.
Cryptocurrency startups often tout blockchain technology for its immutability and heightened security, but in spite of such claims, even distributed ledgers are prone to hacking.Just this week alone, EOS, TRON, Monero, and Augur have handed out $24,500 in bug bounties to ethical hackers who found kinks in their software.According to HackerOne data, security experts found a total of seven vulnerabilities: three in TRON, two in EOS, and one each Monero and Augur respectively.Unfortunately, most of these reports remain closed to the public, so it’s difficult to gauge how serious the issues were.Here’s what we know though: EOS was the most generous bounty giver with a total of $12,500 in prize money, followed by Justin Sun’s TRON with $7,000, and Augur with $5,000.Monero has chosen not to disclose the size of the bounty.
A KAIST research group presented photonic capsules for injectable laser resonators using microfluidic technology.The capsule's diameter is comparable to a human hair and stable in gas and liquid media, so it is injectable into any target volume.The research group headed by Professor Shin-Hyun Kim in the Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering applied an interesting optical property from nature.Chrysina gloriosa, commonly known as the glorious beetle, shows a green color similar to leaves when illuminated by left-handed, circularly-polarized light while showing no color with right-handed, circularly-polarized light.The principle behind this interesting optical property of the beetles relies on helical nanostructures with left-handedness that are present on the shell of the beetles.The helical structures reflect a circularly-polarized light with the same handedness of the helix at the wavelength selected by the helical pitch through optical interference.
YouTube creators are up in arms over new auto-generated thumbnails, accusing the video streaming site of bulldozing over the custom graphics many rely on to make their clips more clickable.Rather than the custom thumbnails that YouTube allows creators to upload and use as the graphic in search results and channels, some found their videos were instead represented by a screenshot from the footage itself.Pressed about the swap on Twitter, YouTube confirmed that it was indeed intentional rather than a thumbnail glitch.“We are running a small experiment where 0.3% of viewers will see an auto-generated thumbnail, instead of your custom thumbnail,” YouTube told one confused creator.“We are not removing the ability to create your custom thumbnail, but we hope to gain insights on auto-generated thumbnails for the future.”The experiment has been met with frustration among many YouTubers, who have reacted furiously about what they typically see as heavy-handedness over how their content is promoted.
While most electronic devices rely on the flow of electrons' charge, the scientific community is feverishly searching for new ways to revolutionize electronics by designing materials and methods to control other inherent electron traits, such as their orbits around atoms and their spin, which can be thought of as a compass needle tuned to face in different directions.In the latest study, detailed in the May 23 online edition of the journal Advanced Materials, scientists working at Berkeley Lab's Molecular Foundry and Advanced Light Source (ALS) confirmed a chirality, or handedness, in the transition regions - called domain walls - between neighboring magnetic domains that have opposite spins.Scientists hope to control chirality - analogous to right-handedness or left-handedness - to control magnetic domains and convey zeros and ones as in conventional computer memory.The samples were composed of an amorphous alloy of gadolinium and cobalt, sandwiched between ultrathin layers of platinum and iridium, which are known to strongly impact neighboring spins.In this latest study, the material samples used in experiments were amorphous, or noncrystalline, which means their atomic structure was disordered.Such a flipping mechanism is a critical enabling technology for spintronics and variant fields of research that are based on the electron's spin property.